Tag Archives: Ishmaelites

The Year 5778: Apex of the Messianic Era

The stars of this week’s parasha, Vayeshev, are Joseph and Judah. We are told how the sons of Jacob were envious (and suspicious) of Joseph, and ended up throwing him in a pit, while deliberating what to do with him. Shimon wished to kill him, Judah to sell him, and Reuben to save him. Meanwhile, Midianite merchants found the helpless Joseph and abducted him, later selling him to Ishmaelites who brought Joseph down to Egypt. There, Joseph enters into servitude in the home of a well-to-do Egyptian family.

The Torah diverges from this narrative to describe what happens to Judah. Judah marries and has three sons. The elder Er marries Tamar and dies because of his sinful ways, as does the second son Onan after fulfilling the law of levirate marriage and marrying his former sister-in-law. After Judah fearfully avoids another levirate marriage for Shelah, his last son, Tamar seduces Judah and becomes pregnant. She gives birth to twins, Peretz and Zerach.

Peretz would go on to be a forefather of King David, and thus a forefather of Mashiach. As is known, there are actual two messianic figures (or two aspects to Mashiach): Mashiach ben David, and Mashiach ben Yosef—one from the line of Judah and one from the line of Joseph. It is therefore in this week’s parasha where the spiritual origins of the two messiahs are laid.

Samson and the Messiahs

Mashiach ben Yosef is the first messiah. He is the warrior that battles evil in the “End of Days”. Unfortunately, he is destined to die in these battles. The Talmud (Sukkah 52a) states how the entire nation will mourn his tragic death. However, it will not be too long before Mashiach ben David arises. As the direct descendant of the royal line, he re-establishes the rightful throne and restores the holy Kingdom of Israel. The Third Temple is built thereafter, and according to some Mashiach ben David reigns for forty years, as did his progenitor King David (Sanhedrin 99a, Midrash Tehillim 15).

We have already discussed why Mashiach ben Yosef must die in the past. How he will die is not exactly clear. What will bring him to his death? It appears that Mashiach ben Yosef will be sold out by his own people. This is what happened to one of the earliest prototypes of Mashiach ben Yosef: the Biblical judge Shimshon (Samson).

As is well known, when Jacob blessed his children, he concluded the blessing to Dan with the words “I hope for Your salvation, Hashem” (Genesis 49:18) which Rashi says refers to Samson, a descendent of Dan. Samson was the potential messiah of his generation. He was a warrior fighting the oppressive Philistines. Yet, the people of Judah did not appreciate the “trouble” he was causing, and apprehended him (Judges 15:11-12):

“Death of Samson”, by Gustav Doré

Then three thousand men of Judah went down to the cleft of the rock of Eitam, and said to Samson: “Do you not know that the Philistines are rulers over us? What then is this that you have done to us?” And he said to them: “As they did to me, so have I done to them.” And they said to him: “We have come to bind you, that we may deliver you into the hand of the Philistines.”

Samson turned himself in voluntarily, but with God’s help smote the Philistine oppressors and freed himself. He would be betrayed again by Delilah, but would manage to defeat the Philistines for good, though at the cost of his own life. Like Mashiach ben Yosef, Samson sacrifices himself.

The text above specifically states that three thousand men of Judah came for Samson. What is the significance of this numeric detail?

The Evil 3000

At the Exodus, the Torah states there was a “mixed multitude” (erev rav) of three thousand men among the Israelites. They, too, accepted the Torah at Mt. Sinai, only to instigate the Golden Calf incident forty days later. It is said that the same will happen at the End of Days, with an “erev rav” among the Jews who will instigate all sorts of problems for the nation from within (see, for example, Zohar I, 25 or Sha’ar HaGilgulim, ch. 39). Like Samson’s three thousand men of Judah, Mashiach ben Yosef is sold out by three thousand “Jewish” individuals.

And the fact that they are men of Judah is all the more significant. It was Judah in this week’s parasha who proposed selling Joseph. And to whom did he want to sell him?

And Judah said to his brothers: “What is the gain if we slay our brother and cover up his blood? Come, let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, but our hand shall not be upon him, for he is our brother, our flesh.” (Genesis 37:26-27)

Judah wanted to sell his brother to the Ishmaelites. In speaking of the battles of Mashiach ben Yosef and the End of Days, it is often the Ishmaelites (or the Ishmaelites banded together with Esau) that are implicated (see, for example, Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 30). Today, of course—quite conveniently—the modern “Philistines” are Ishmaelites, and among their biggest supporters are the descendants of Esau.

In The Era of Mashiach

This discussion is particularly timely in light of what’s currently happening in the Middle East. It seems the region is preparing for a massive war, one that would inevitably engulf the entire Ishmaelite sphere, if not the whole world. We’ve written before that we are undoubtedly in the “footsteps of the Messiah” and here is another intriguing point:

God originally intended Adam to live 1000 years. Yet, we see in Genesis that Adam lived only 930 years. This is because, as is well known, Adam foresaw that David would be stillborn, and donated 70 years of his life to him. Indeed, David went on to live exactly 70 years. The Arizal saw in the name Adam (אדם) an acronym for three figures: Adam, David, Mashiach. These are the first, middle, and last major figures of human history. Rabbi Yitzchak Ginsburgh stresses that David is supposed to be the literal midpoint of history. If that’s the case, then we only need to see when David lived to calculate the era of Mashiach.

The traditional lifetime for David is 2854-2924 AM (Anno Mundi, Hebrew calendar years, corresponding to about 907-837 BCE). To find the time period for the End of Days we must simply multiply David’s years by two. This gives 5708-5848, or 1947/1948-2087/2088 CE. That’s quite amazing, considering that Israel officially became a state in 5708 (the UN vote to create Israel took place in November 1947, and Israel declared independence in May 1948—both dates fall within the Jewish year 5708). And what would be the midpoint, or perhaps the apex, of the “End of Days” period? None other than 5778, the year which we are currently in.

Stay tuned.

The Mysterious Urim and Thummim, and the Dome of the Rock

Modern Rendition of the Choshen, the High Priest’s Breastplate

This week’s Torah portion is Tetzave, which focuses on the holy vestments worn by the Kohen Gadol, the High Priest. Perhaps the most enigmatic of these vestments is the choshen hamishpat, the “breastplate of judgement”. This breastplate was embedded with twelve different precious stones, each symbolizing one of the Twelve Tribes. Housed within the breastplate were the Urim v’Tumim, mysterious objects whose nature has been speculated upon for centuries.

The Torah itself does not elaborate on what the Urim and Tumim are. The Talmud (Yoma 21b) states that they were one of the five things that were in the First Temple but missing in the Second Temple. Many believe that these were a couple of stones used to communicate with God. Unseen and unused for some two and a half millennia, it isn’t surprising that the Urim and Tumim are clouded in mystery.

Guilty or Innocent?

Some scholars see urim rooted in the root arur, “cursed”, and tumim from tam, “innocent”. Thus, these stones were used to figure out if a person was guilty or innocent, or if a certain decision was right or wrong. We read in I Samuel 14:36-44 how King Saul debated whether to pursue the Philistines in battle or not, so the High Priest addressed the question to God. God does not respond, so Saul concludes there must be a guilty person among them causing God to turn away. He then separates the people into groups to see which group contains the guilty party. It turns out that it is Saul’s son Jonathan who erred. This passage highlights the use of Urim and Tumim in divine communication, both in finding whether an action is right or wrong, and in determining guilt and innocence.

How did the stones communicate this? The word urim can mean “lights”, so it is thought that the stones glowed: one stone for yes/innocent, and the other for no/guilty. Others hold that the Urim and Tumim gave power to the Breastplate itself, causing the letters engraved upon it to glow. Each of the twelve stones on the Breastplate was engraved with the name of the corresponding tribe. However, the twelve names do not include all twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet! The missing letters—Chet, Tet, Tzadi, Kuf—are in the names of the patriarchs, which were also engraved onto the plate, together with the phrase shivtei yeshurun, “Tribes of Jeshurun”. (Jeshurun was an ancient name for Israel.)

Interestingly, Rabbi Chaim Vital writes that this is how the Arizal could “read” people’s faces, by seeing a sort of Breastplate on their forehead. In Sha’ar Ruach HaKodesh, he explains that each person’s forehead has the twenty-two letters mystically engraved upon it, and the letters glow allowing the adept to penetrate into one’s soul and fortune. Each letter symbolizes different things. If no letters at all are shining, the person is nearing their death!

The Foundation Stone

Meanwhile, Targum Yonatan comments (on Exodus 28:30) that the Urim and Tumim were themselves inscribed with the alphabet, through a mystical name of God—“the name through which He created all three hundred and ten worlds”. Again, the letters would glow in sequence to provide the answer to one’s question. Targum Yonatan appears to suggest that the Urim and Tumim were special stones formed from the great Even HaShetiya, the Foundation Stone. According to tradition, this is the Stone from which Creation began, some seeing it is the very centre of the universe. Targum Yonatan says the Foundation Stone was placed by God to “seal up the mouth of the great deep at the beginning”.

This refers to the account of Creation, where it is stated at the beginning that everything was “chaos and void, with darkness upon the deep” (Genesis 1:2) before God said, “Let there be light.” Looking at these verses carefully, we see that the Torah uses the word tehom for the great deep, before the introduction of light, or. It isn’t difficult to see a connection between or v’tehom and urim v’tumim. The Urim and Tumim are meant to be conduits for communicating with the Divine, while the Foundation Stone has traditionally been seen as the very link between the Heavens and Earth.

Where is this Foundation Stone? The Talmud (Yoma 53b) tells us that the Even Shetiya is precisely the site of the Holy of Holies, the inner sanctum of the Temple, where the High Priest entered just once a year on Yom Kippur. The Stone served as the foundation for the Ark of the Covenant. The Ark, too, was a means of Divine Communication, with a Heavenly Voice emanating from between the Cherubs on the Ark’s Cover. We therefore see a link between the Ark and the Urim v’Tumim. The Talmud tells us that both the Ark and the Urim were missing in the Second Temple, together with the Shekhina and the spirit of prophecy. In short, the Second Temple era was devoid of any real divine communication.

The Dome of the Rock

The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall. Some believe the Temple was located right in front of the Wall, in the forested area pictured above.

So, what stood instead of the Ark in the Holy of Holies of the Second Temple? The Foundation Stone! It protruded “three fingers above the ground” and it is on this Stone that the High Priest would place the burning coals and incense on Yom Kippur (Yoma 53b). It is atop this Stone that the Muslims built the famous gold-topped Dome of the Rock (hence the name).

The Rabbis debate whether the Rock inside the Dome really is the Foundation Stone or not. The Arizal is among those who believed it is not, suggesting instead that the Temple was built right in front of where the Western Wall is today. Meanwhile, the Radbaz and Rav Ovadia of Bartenura maintained that it is indeed the Stone. They are supported by an ancient Midrash which prophesies that the Ishmaelites will do fifteen things in Israel, one of which is building a shrine atop the Holy of Holies (Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 30). The midrashic passage concludes by presciently saying the Ishmaelites will instigate three great wars at the end: one in Arab lands, one in the Sea, and one in the West. It is in the midst of these wars that Mashiach will come.

Top view of the Stone housed in the Dome of the Rock.

When that time comes, the Ark of the Covenant—which many believe is currently hidden under the Foundation Stone—will be restored, together with the Priestly Vestments. In light of the fact that we are now quite clearly living out the final verses of that midrashic passage, it seems we shall soon be able to finally unravel the mystery of the Urim v’Tumim.

A picture from beneath the Rock, the area known as the “Well of Souls”

Was Joseph Really Sold By His Brothers?

‘Joseph Sold by His Brethren’ by Gustave Doré

This week’s Torah portion, Vayeshev, describes the infamous sale of Joseph into slavery by his very own brothers. At least, this is the commonly-held view of what had transpired. A closer examination reveals that the story is a little more complex than that, and the brothers are not as guilty as they may seem at first glance.

First, the background: The parasha begins by telling us “These are the geneologies of Jacob…” (Genesis 37:2) and then only mentioning Joseph. What about all of Jacob’s other children? They are not mentioned, and the text continues to describe how Joseph was the favourite of his father. It’s as if Jacob didn’t even pay attention to any of his other children. He knits a special garment just for Joseph, and spends most of his time with this son, while the others are off shepherding in faraway pastures. Not surprisingly, this caused some tension among the sons.

The tension was further exacerbated by the fact that Joseph would apparently “snitch” on his brothers. Though the commentaries suggest that this was done with positive intentions, with the hopes of improving his brothers’ conduct, nonetheless it may have been misinterpreted as a form of lashon hara – evil speech. On top of this, Joseph had a number of dreams where he saw himself dominating over his family, with the others bowing down to him. He proudly shared these stories with his siblings. Naturally, the brothers thought that he was some kind of megalomaniac who wished to rule over them. They soon began thinking of a way to get rid of him.

Many question how it was possible for such great people, the sons of Israel, and the progenitors of the Twelve Tribes, to even think of such actions. However, there is quite a bit of logic in their plans. The brothers knew that essentially every preceding generation in their family line had at least one wayward son who was wicked. In their father Jacob’s time, it was their uncle Esau, and in their grandfather Isaac’s time, it was his half-brother Ishmael. Even before this, Abraham had Haran, the sons of Noah had Ham, and all the way back to Eden where Abel had Cain. There was a clear pattern of one child doing more harm than good. The sons of Israel thought that Joseph played that role in their generation. Their intention was to get him out of the way before he could do some serious damage. But how?

Putting Joseph to the Test

Led by Shimon, the brothers said, “And now, let us kill him, and we will send him into one of the pits, and we will say, ‘A wild beast devoured him,’ and we will see what will become of his dreams.” (v. 20) Rashi draws from the Midrash when commenting on this verse, pointing out an apparent inconsistency: why would the brothers say “we will see what will become of his dreams” if they were going to kill him? Obviously, if they were going to kill him, his dreams would not materialize!

What Rashi is telling us here is that the brothers essentially put Joseph to a test. If he was indeed the wicked one, as they believed, then he deserved to die, and they would succeed in killing him, proving that his dreams were nothing more than crazy fantasies. On the other hand, if the dreams were truly prophetic, and Joseph was really the greatest among them, then they could never succeed in killing him anyway, and his dreams would materialize after all.

The brothers agreed that this is the best course of action, but Reuben protested. “And Reuben said to them, ‘Do not shed blood! Send him into this pit, which is in the wilderness, but do not lay a hand upon him’” (v. 22). Reuben agreed that Joseph should be put to the test, but they should certainly not be trying to kill him. Instead, they should just leave him in a pit in the wilderness. If he were to be saved from such an ordeal, it would be proof enough.

At the same time, Reuben intended to return to the pit and save Joseph himself. Reuben, the elder of the brothers, understood that the others had taken their understanding of God’s ways in the wrong direction. They thought that God would save Joseph if He so wished. Reuben understood that the world didn’t necessarily work that way. At the end of the day, God gave man the gift of free will. People can use this gift for the good, or for the bad, and God rarely intervenes. If the brothers tried to kill Joseph, he could indeed die, despite his greatness and prophetic dreams. (An analogy to this twisted logic may be one where a murderer says that since he succeeded in killing another, God must have wanted it that way, and he should be exonerated! Of course, this is completely false.) Reuben recognized his brothers’ flawed logic, and convinced them not to kill Joseph. Nonetheless, they would still throw him into the pit.

After they did so, they sat down for a meal and spotted a caravan of Ishmaelite merchants passing by on their way to Egypt. Yehuda got an idea: “Come, let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and our hand shall not be upon him, for he is our brother, our flesh” (v. 27). Instead of killing Joseph, Yehuda proposed selling him into slavery. Why would he suggest such a thing? Did the brothers really need twenty pieces of silver? We have already read previously how wealthy the family was; it is unthinkable that the ten of them would sell their brother for just two silver coins each. No, Yehuda’s suggestion had far more meaning. Joseph had dreamt and told his brothers that he would one day rule over them. So, what could be better to test Joseph than to sell him into slavery, the very opposite of what he dreamt? Can it ever be possible for a slave to rise to the level of royalty, especially in a foreign land? If this could happen, it would indeed be miraculous, and no better proof would be necessary. The brothers would sell Joseph into slavery. But somebody beat them to it.

Who Sold Joseph?

The Torah continues to tell us that “Midianite men were passing by, merchants, and they pulled and lifted Joseph from the pit, and they sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty [pieces of] silver…” (v. 28). While the brothers were deliberating on what to do, Midianite men passed by and discovered Joseph weak and helpless in the pit. They captured him and sold him to the Ishmaelites. “And Reuben returned to the pit, and behold, Joseph was not in the pit… and he returned to his brothers and said, ‘The boy is gone!’” (v. 29-30). Clearly, the brothers were not the ones who sold Joseph! Still, they did have the intention to do so, and that was enough for them to be blamed for Joseph being sold. (Whether they would have actually sold him at the end or not is uncertain; after all, they had also intended to kill him, then to abandon him in a pit, and in both cases they changed their minds.)

Ultimately, Joseph’s descent into slavery in Egypt really was part of the cosmic plan. By trying to get rid of him, the brothers actually facilitated the realization of Joseph’s dream that they were trying so hard to prevent! As a slave, he was purchased by a wealthy and influential Egyptian, which led him into imprisonment with a couple of other important people from Pharaoh’s court, and through interpreting their dreams, Joseph earned an audience with the Pharaoh himself. From there, he rose through the ranks to become viceroy of all Egypt, and even Pharaoh was only more powerful than Joseph in name. Soon after, the brothers were forced to go down to Egypt to get food when the whole region was hit with a devastating famine. Joseph was the one in charge of distributing the food, and the brothers ended up before him once again. This time, they were bowing to him.

Over two decades later, Joseph’s dreams had finally come true.