Tag Archives: Ten Plagues

The Kabbalah of Moses’ Divine Staff

In this week’s parasha, Va’era, we read about the first seven plagues to strike Egypt. These were brought about through the Staff of Moses, as were the later Splitting of the Sea, the victory over Amalek (Exodus 17) and the water brought forth from a rock. What was so special about this particular staff, and what was the source of its power?

Pirkei Avot (5:6) famously states that the Staff was one of ten special things to be created in the twilight between the Sixth Day and the first Shabbat. The Midrash (Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 40) elaborates:

Rabbi Levi said: That staff which was created in the twilight was delivered to the first man out of the Garden of Eden. Adam delivered it to Enoch, and Enoch delivered it to Noah, and Noah to Shem. Shem passed it on to Abraham, Abraham to Isaac, and Isaac to Jacob, and Jacob brought it down to Egypt and passed it on to his son Joseph, and when Joseph died and they pillaged his household goods, it was placed in the palace of Pharaoh.

And Jethro was one of the magicians of Egypt, and he saw the staff and the letters which were upon it, and he desired it in his heart, and he took it and brought it, and planted it in the midst of the garden of his house. No one was able to approach it any more.

When Moses came to his house, he went into Jethro’s garden, and saw the staff and read the letters which were upon it, and he put forth his hand and took it. Jethro watched Moses, and said: “This one in the future will redeem Israel from Egypt.” Therefore, he gave him Tzipporah his daughter to be his wife…

God gave the staff to Adam, who gave it to Enoch (Hanokh)—who, according to tradition, later transformed into the angel Metatron—and Enoch passed it on further until it got to Joseph in Egypt. The Pharaoh confiscated it after Joseph’s death. The passage then alludes to another Midrashic teaching that Jethro (Yitro), Moses’ future father-in-law, was once an advisor to Pharaoh, along with Job and Bila’am (see Sanhedrin 106a). The wicked Bila’am was the one who advised Pharaoh to drown the Israelite male-born in the Nile. While Job remained silent (for which he was so severely punished later), Jethro protested the cruel decree, and was forced to resign and flee because of it. As he fled, he grabbed the divine staff with him. Arriving in Midian, his new home, Jethro stuck the staff in the earth, at which point it seemingly gave forth deep roots and was immovable.

A related Midrash states that all the suitors that sought the hand of his wise and beautiful Tzipporah were asked to take the staff out of the earth, and should they succeed, could marry Jethro’s daughter. None were worthy. (Not surprisingly, some believe that this Midrash may have been the source for the Arthurian legend of the sword Excalibur.) Ultimately, Moses arrived and effortlessly pulled the staff out of the ground.

The passage above states that Moses was mesmerized by the letters engraved upon the staff, as was Jethro before him. What were these letters?

The 72 Names

Targum Yonatan (on Exodus 4:20) explains:

And Moses took the rod which he had brought away from the chamber of his father-in-law, made from the sapphire Throne of Glory; its weight forty se’ah; and upon it was engraved and set forth the Great and Glorious Name by which the signs should be wrought before Hashem by his hand…

God’s Ineffable Name was engraved upon the sapphire staff, which was itself carved out of God’s Heavenly Throne. The staff weighed a whopping 40 se’ah, equivalent to the minimum volume of a kosher mikveh, which is roughly 575 litres of water, or 575 kilograms. (This would explain why none could dislodge the staff, except he who had God’s favour.)

A parallel Midrash (Shemot Rabbah, 8:3) also confirms that the staff was of pure sapphire, weighing forty se’ah, but says it was engraved with the letters that stand for the Ten Plagues, as we recite at the Passover seder: datzach, adash, b’achav (דצ״ך עד״ש באח״ב).

A final possibility is that the “Great and Glorious Name by which the signs should be wrought” refers to the mystical 216-letter Name of God (or 72-word Name of God). This Name is actually 72 linked names, each composed of three letters. The names are derived from the three verses Exodus 14:19-21:

And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them; and it came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel; and there was the cloud and the darkness here, yet it gave light by night there; and the one came not near the other all the night. And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and Hashem caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all the night, and made the sea into dry land, and the waters were divided.

The 72 Three-Letter Names of God

Each of these verses has exactly 72 letters. Hidden within them is this esoteric Name of God, the most powerful, through which came about the miracle of the Splitting of the Sea as the verses themselves describe. The Name (or 72 Names) is derived by combining the first letter of the first verse, then the last letter of the second verse, and then the first letter of the third verse. The same is done for the next letter, and so on, for all 72 Names.

Since the Splitting of the Sea and the plagues were brought about through these Names, the Midrash above may be referring not to the Ineffable Name, but to these 72 Names as being engraved upon the Staff. In fact, it may be both.

Staff from Atzilut

The 72 Names are alluded to by another mystical 72-Name of God. The Arizal taught that God’s Ineffable Name can be expanded in four ways. This refers to a practice called milui,* where the letters of each word are themselves spelled out to express the inner value and meaning of the word. God’s Ineffable Name can be expanded in these ways, with the corresponding values:

יוד הא ואו הא = 45

יוד הה וו הה = 52

יוד הי ואו הי = 63

יוד הי ויו הי = 72

The Name with the 72 value is the highest, not just numerically, but according to the sefirot, partzufim, and universes laid out in Kabbalah. The 52-Name corresponds to Malkhut and the world of Asiyah; the 45-Name to Zeir Anpin (the six “masculine” sefirot) and the world of Yetzirah; and the 63-Name to Binah and the world of Beriah. The 72-Name—which is, of course, tied to the above 72 Names of God—corresponds to the highest universe, Atzilut, the level of God’s Throne, where there is nothing but His Emanation and Pure Light. Here we come full circle, for the Midrash states that the Staff of Moses was itself carved out of God’s Throne. This otherworldly staff came down to this world from the highest Heavenly realm!

Where is the Staff Today?

What happened to Moses’ staff after his passing? Another Midrash (Yalkut Shimoni, Psalms 869) answers:

…the staff with which Jacob crossed the Jordan is identical with that which Judah gave to his daughter-in-law, Tamar. It is likewise the holy staff with which Moses worked, and with which Aaron performed wonders before Pharaoh, and with which, finally, David slew the giant Goliath. David left it to his descendants, and the Davidic kings used it as a sceptre until the destruction of the Temple, when it miraculously disappeared. When the Messiah comes it will be given to him for a sceptre as a sign of his authority over the heathens.

This incredible passage contains a great deal of novel insight. Firstly, Jacob used this divine staff to split the Jordan and allow his large family to safely cross back to Israel, just as the Israelites would later cross the Jordan in miraculous fashion under the leadership of Joshua. It seems Joshua himself, as Moses’ rightful successor, held on to the staff, and passed it down through the Judges and Prophets until it came to the hand of David. Unlike the traditional account of David slaying Goliath with the giant’s own sword, the Midrash here says he slew Goliath with the staff!

The staff remained in the Davidic dynasty until the kingdom’s end with the destruction of the First Temple. At this point a lot of things mysteriously disappeared, most famously the Ark of the Covenant. It is believed that the Ark was hidden in a special chamber built for it by Solomon, who envisioned the day that the Temple would be destroyed. It is likely that the staff is there, too, alongside it.

Mashiach will restore both of these, and will once again wield the sceptre of the Davidic dynasty. As the staff is forged from God’s own Heavenly Throne, it is fitting that Mashiach—God’s appointed representative, who sits on His corresponding earthly throne—should hold a piece of it. And this symbol, the Midrash concludes, will be what makes even the heathens accept Mashiach’s—and God’s—authority. Jacob prophesied this on his deathbed (Genesis 49:10), in his blessing to Judah:

The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until the coming of Shiloh; and unto him shall the obedience of all the peoples be.

Shiloh is one of the titles for Mashiach (see Sanhedrin 98b), and his wielding of the staff will bring about the obedience of all the world’s people to God’s law. We can now also solve a classic problem with the above verse:

The verse states that the sceptre will not depart from Judah until the coming of Mashiach, as if it will depart from Judah when Mashiach comes. This makes no sense, since Mashiach is a descendent of Judah! It should have simply said that the sceptre shall never depart from Judah, from whom the messiah will come. Rather, Jacob is hinting that the Staff will one day be hidden in the land of Judah, deep below “between his feet”, and won’t budge from there for millennia until Mashiach comes and finally restores it.

May we merit to see it soon.

Courtesy: Temple Institute

*Interestingly, using the same milui method, one can expand the word staff (מטה) like this: מאם טאת הה, which is 501, equivalent to דצ״ך עד״ש באח״ב, the acronym for the Ten Plagues which the Staff brought about!

Nisan: Transcending Nature

This week we start the third book of the Torah, Vayikra. The English name of the book is Leviticus, referring to the fact that much of the book is concerned with priestly laws. In addition to the week’s parasha, we also read an extra section called Parashat HaChodesh, meant to prepare us for the upcoming holiday of Passover.

Parashat HaChodesh recalls God’s command to the Jewish people to set the month of Nisan as the first month of the year. Although we count the years from the start of Tishrei – which is the 7th month – the months themselves are counted from Nisan. The Mishnah (Rosh HaShanah 1:1) tells us that there are actually four new years: “the first of Nisan is the new year for kings and festivals; the first of Elul is the new year for animal tithes… the first of Tishrei is the new year for years, for sabbaticals, jubilees, for planting and for vegetables; the first of Shevat is the new year for trees according to the house of Shammai; according to the house of Hillel, however, it is the fifteenth of Shevat.”

Nisan represents the new year when it comes to the sequence of holidays, and to the counting of the reigning of kings. The Gemara explains here that even if a king took the throne at the end of the month of Adar, and the month of Nisan begins just a week later, he is already considered to have started his second year of kingship! The big question is, why is Nisan singled out as the month to start all months, and what does kingship have to do with any of it?

The Straight Serpent and the Twisted Serpent

The prophet Ezekiel describes Pharaoh as “the great serpent” (Ezekiel 29:3). Meanwhile, the prophet Isaiah mentions two serpents: nachash bariach, the “straight serpent”, and nachash ‘akalaton, the “twisted serpent”. The Kabbalistic Sages state that the straight serpent represents Moses, while the twisted serpent represents Pharaoh. The twisted serpent is depicted as one with its tail in its mouth, forming the shape of a circle (a mystical symbol often known as the ouroboros in Greek).



The circle is a shape that represents cycles, and is symbolic of nature. In nature, just about everything is cyclical: the movements of the stars and planets in their orbits, the months and years, the seasons, the water cycle, the circle of life, and so on. The circle thus represents the physical world and its strict, repeating laws of nature.

The straight line – Moses’ nachash bariach – represents the very opposite. It is a symbol of a direct connection to the upper worlds. It is about breaking free from the strict, cyclical laws of nature, and transcending into a higher realm. Indeed, this is one of the meanings of the name “Israel” (ישראל) which can be split into yashar el (ישר-אל), literally “straight to God”.

The Egyptians, with Pharaoh central among them, believed in nature and its various forces. They worshipped the sun and the moon, the earth and the sky, the Nile river (and its cyclical, seasonal flooding), a host of animals, and countless other natural entities. This was their entire reality.

The Jews, on the other hand, with Moses central among them, believed in Hashem, the one infinite God, the creator of all natural forces. They knew there is a God above all the laws of nature, one who could perform supernatural miracles when necessary. This was the very essence of the Ten Plagues, which were meant to convince all doubters that the laws of nature can be totally broken. They are all under the supervision of One God.

This was also the symbolism behind the first encounter between Moses and Pharaoh. Moses’ straight staff turned into a serpent. The staffs of Pharaoh’s magicians turned into serpents, too, but “twisted” ones. In supernatural fashion, Moses’ serpent swallowed the others whole. The straight serpent devoured the twisted serpents.

The Central Lesson of Pesach

One of the key lessons of Pesach is to teach us that we are not bound by the laws of nature. God created us in His divine image, and told us from the very beginning that we are above nature (Genesis 1:27-28). Today, many would want to have us believe that we are nothing but biological machines, here because of strict, mechanistic, evolutionary laws – laws that we cannot break free from – subject to our genes, our neural wiring, and conditioning. The reality is in fact the very opposite: our bodies are only vessels for our souls, and we are in control of our bodies, not the other way around.

The Sages state that a person who is above the natural whims of their body is a true king. The Hebrew word for “king”, melekh, is spelled מ-ל-ך, where מ stands for מוח (brain, or mind), ל stands for לב (heart), and כ stands for כבד (liver). God created the body with the brain anatomically above the heart, and the heart above the liver. The lesson is that our minds should be “above” our hearts (representing emotions and desires), and above our livers (representing honour and pride). A king is one whose mind is in control of their body. The opposite case, where one’s desires are above their mind, and the ego above all, would carry the opposite sequence of letters: כ-ל-ם, which spells klum, meaning “nothing”. And finally, a person who does not necessarily have much pride, but nonetheless succumbs to the petty emotions and desires of their body, has the sequence ל-מ-ך, which spells lemekh, meaning “servant”. They are likened to one who is enslaved by their body.

The message of Passover is to free ourselves from slavery. To become real kings. The month of Nisan is the best opportunity to do this, a month whose very root is nes (נס), “miracles”. It is the month of transcending nature, the first of the months; the new year of festivals, and the new year of kings.

The Ten Plagues and the Idols of Egypt

Our most recent parasha was Bo, which describes the final three plagues in Egypt and the first Passover night. Last week, we mentioned how the primary purpose of the Ten Plagues was both to mete out measure-for-measure retribution to the Egyptians, as well as to reveal God’s complete unity and control over His universe. The latter was done not only by showing incredible miracles and supernatural events, but more specifically by demolishing the Egyptians’ existing pagan beliefs. A careful analysis shows how each of the plagues appears to target one of the major idols of Egypt.

The first plague was that of the Nile River turning to blood. The Nile was the lifeline of Ancient Egypt. Its cyclical flooding enriched the soil for bountiful harvests, and together with its abundance of fish and wildlife, fed the masses. Not surprisingly, the Nile was itself worshipped by the Egyptians. The main Nile goddess was called Anuket, and was symbolized by a fish. Each year a grand festival was held in honour of Anuket, with the main event being a floating procession down the River, presided by the Pharaoh himself. This may be what the Torah is referring to in Exodus 7:15 where God instructs Moses to head down to the Nile, where Pharaoh was at the time, and to initiate the first plague. One can imagine how if this was indeed during the Anuket festival, the entire Egyptian populace would be gathered at the River – a perfect time to bring about the first plague right before the people’s eyes. Historical records show that during the festival, fish that were normally forbidden from being caught and eaten were permitted, and the people would happily fill their baskets. Imagine their surprise when the very Nile that they worshiped turned to blood and coughed up all the carcasses of the fish that they were so eager to eat!

Anuket, the Egyptian goddess of the Nile

Anuket, the Egyptian goddess of the Nile

The second plague was that of frogs, filling every space and crevice to the point where every square foot was saturated with croaking amphibians. This is quite ironic. The ancient Egyptians worshipped the frog as well, known to them as Heket, the goddess of fertility. The very idol which they prayed to for fertility plagued them by none other than being incredibly fertile! In fact, Rashi suggests (on Exodus 8:2) that only one frog initially emerged, and it multiplied so rapidly that soon the entire land was filled with them. How appropriate!

Heket, the frog-headed goddess of fertility

Heket, the frog-headed goddess of fertility

One can continue on and on through all of the Ten Plagues. Perhaps most obvious is the ninth plague – that of darkness. This one blotted out the sun for days, bringing about a darkness so thick that the Egyptians couldn’t even move. This was clearly targeted at the Egyptian worship of one of their absolute chief deities, Ra, the god of the sun. (It appears that Pharaoh actually mentions Ra in the Torah’s text – see Rashi on Exodus 10:10.)

The tenth and final plague was striking the firstborn. The Torah specifically mentions a number of times that Pharaoh’s own firstborn would be taken. The phrasing in verse 11:5 is that Pharaoh’s son, who “sits on his throne” – who is destined to be the next pharaoh – would perish. This final, climactic plague was meant to target the pharaohs directly, since the pharaohs had themselves deified as gods, too. Hashem’s final delivery of the message was most clear: everyone would understand without any shadow of a doubt that there are no other gods or deities of any kind, whatsoever.

What followed this narrative is the eventual revelation at Sinai of the Ten Commandments, which begin by once again reminding us of this fact. Instead of believing in all sorts of false deities and hopeless forces, our purpose is to align ourselves with the One, Infinite entity that permeates every iota of this universe, and that fills each person – made in His divine “image” of limitless goodness and potential. This is the key to living a happy, righteous, fulfilled life. As Rabban Gamliel teaches in the Mishnah (Avot 2:4):

“Make your will like His will, and in turn, He will make His will like your will…”

The Meaning of God’s Names

In this week’s Torah portion, Va’era, the Torah describes the first seven plagues that God brought upon Egypt. The purpose of the plagues was multi-fold. Firstly, and most simply, they were meant to break the Egyptian enslavement of the Israelites, and set the latter free. Secondly, and more importantly, they were meant to reveal God’s complete control over the entire universe, and show how all idolatry was false. There are no other “gods” or powers of any kind, whatsoever. This is the central message of the entire narrative, from start to finish.

In last week’s portion, we read how Moses asks God how he should describe God to the people. God’s reply is: Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh, “I Will Be What I Will Be”. God has no name, no form, nor any kind of physical description. He tells Moses to simply inform the people that Moses was sent by Ehyeh – “Will Be”. God Is, Was, and always Will Be. God simply is. He is all things, the infinite force that permeates everything in creation and beyond. Because God is infinite, there is no term that could describe Him, and no “name” that can be applied to Him. This is why God tells Moses that He just is.

However, we do see that there are indeed “names” of God. In fact, there are a multitude of different names that are applied to the Infinite One, and God Himself describes a couple of these names to Moses at the start of this week’s portion. What is the significance of these “names”?

The Names of God

All of the many names that the holy texts use in reference to God are essentially only there to help us understand Him. For example, God’s central name – the Tetragrammaton, made up of the letters yud, hei, vav, hei (י-ה-ו-ה, commonly transliterated as YHWH) – demonstrates God’s eternity. The name is essentially a combination of the conjugations of the verb להיות – “to be” – in all three tenses: past (haya, היה), present (hov’e, הווה), and future (ihyeh, יהיה).

Another name that we are given at the start of our parasha is El-Shaddai. This literally translates along the lines of “the God that is Enough”, or “The Sufficient One”. This is another lesson in monotheism: it is sufficient to have only One God, and no others are necessary.

Other names throughout the Torah include Makom – “Place” – denoting God’s complete omnipresence, and that He is found absolutely everywhere, in all places and all things. (This reminds of a famous adage of the Kotzker Rebbe: “One who does not see God everywhere, does not see Him anywhere.”) Another common name is Elohim – “Powers” – a word that is surprisingly in the plural, yet used in the singular form, again showing that all of the apparent forces present in creation are truly One. Extrabiblical Jewish texts describe God as Ribbono shel Olam, “Master of the Universe”; HaKadosh Baruch Hu, “The Holy One, Blessed be He”; and Ain Sof, “Without End” (ie. the Infinite).

All of these appellations essentially refer to the same things: God is One, eternal, and permeating all things, both within and beyond this universe. None of these are really “names” in the literal sense, but ways to describe God. This is one deeper reason why the Tetragrammaton is never pronounced – instead replaced with Hashem, “The Name” – for how can an Infinite Force be contained within such a finite label like a name?

God informs Moses that this is what He wants the people to understand – both the Israelites and the Egyptians. The primary vehicle for accomplishing this was through the Ten Plagues, which completely shattered the Egyptian conception of polytheism. How the Plagues went about accomplishing this will hopefully be the focus of next week’s post.

An Honest Look at the Film ‘Exodus: Gods and Kings’

This week we start a new book of the Torah, Shemot, known in English as ‘Exodus’. This volume is primarily concerned with the period of Israelite slavery in Egypt, and the subsequent salvation following the ten plagues and the Splitting of the Sea, climaxing with the revelation at Mt. Sinai, and the start of the transmission of the bulk of the Torah’s laws.

Coincidentally, not long ago was released Ridley Scott’s new film, Exodus: Gods and Kings, and I finally had a chance to see it this week. Though it appeared to show a little bit of promise at the start, the movie soon unravelled into a bizarre re-invention of the Biblical story. Of course, there is nothing wrong with some artistic liberties when adapting an ancient text for a modern film, nor is it too much of a problem to fill in some of the gaps in the Torah’s narrative. However, Exodus: Gods and Kings presented a completely twisted version that did not even slightly stick to the basic story of the Torah. It would take an entire tome to cover all the mistakes in the film, but perhaps we can offer just a few of the most blatant ones.

From the very beginning, we see that Moses seems to be completely unaware that he is not Egyptian. That’s quite odd: Semites and Egyptians had a totally different appearance. Take a look at this depiction of Semitic tribes, as discovered in the 12th dynasty tomb of Egyptian Khnumhotep II, official of the pharaoh Senusret II:


The Semites have a different skin tone, different hair styles, clothes, and so on. The filmmakers clearly knew this, as they show Moses bearded and sporting a nice hairdo, while all the other Egyptian royals are clean-shaven and bald. His eyes look different, and he wears clothes of a completely different style than all the others. How come? Didn’t he ever question why he doesn’t look anything like his “royal brethren”?

More importantly, the Torah clearly says that Moses was initially raised by his true birth mother, Yocheved (Exodus 2:7-9). Only after he was fully weaned did Yocheved present Moses to his new step-mother, the Pharaoh’s daughter (v. 10). It is totally inconceivable that Moses did not know he was a Hebrew! The Torah states that when Moses grew up, he “went out to his brothers and looked at their burdens” (2:11). He knew full-well that he was going out to his people.

At this point, when he saw an Egyptian taskmaster violently beating a Jew, he stepped in to save the victim, killing the Egyptian in the process. In the movie, this heroic act is replaced with an enraged Moses killing an Egyptian guard who was doing nothing terrible at all. The kind, compassionate Moses, described by the Torah as the humblest man that ever lived, is turned into a violent brute who kills indiscriminately. No wonder that Christian Bale, the actor who plays Moses, said of his character that he was “likely schizophrenic and was one of the most barbaric individuals that I ever read about in my life.” Makes sense if all he ever read about Moses was in the script for the film.

If Christian Bale did indeed read about Moses, perhaps he missed the whole part where Moses selflessly led his people for forty years in the wilderness. Where he literally sat from morning to evening to counsel the people and help them (Exodus 18:13). Or when he refused to abandon his people, even when God offered to make an entirely new nation out of Moses (Exodus 32:10). The many occasions where he convinced God to avert His just decrees and forgive the nation for their sins. The time where his sister Miriam transgressed severely against Moses, yet he did not hold even the tiniest of grudges or ill-will, and immediately prayed to God to heal Miriam and have mercy on her (Numbers 12:13). Or the simple fact that Moses led the revolution that brought monotheism (together with a higher sense of morality, starting with a set of Ten Commandments) to over two-thirds of the world’s population.

Worse than its depiction of Moses, though, was the film’s depiction of God: an irrational, pointlessly vengeful, literally childish figure. The film made it seem like the Ten Plagues were nothing more than God’s desire to kill as many people as possible. The reality, of course, was that the Ten Plagues were meant to be a measure-for-measure retribution for what the Egyptians had done; nothing more than cosmic karma. For example, just as the whole story begins with Pharaoh ordering the male-born to be drowned in the Nile, it ends with Pharaoh’s own male soldiers drowning in the Red Sea, measure for measure. Nor was God happy about any of this. The Talmud (Sanhedrin 39b) beautifully says that at the Splitting of the Sea, when the Egyptians drowned, the angels began to sing a joyous song, mimicking the Jews that were singing as well – but God immediately stopped them. He rebuked the angels, saying sadly: “My creations are drowning, and you are singing?”

When one studies the texts and commentaries, it becomes clear that each of the Plagues was specifically tailored towards the sins of the Egyptians, and was designed to bring the rightful justice that was due. Nowhere is this fact even hinted to in the movie. Most telling was after the plague of the firstborn, when Pharaoh confronts Moses demanding an answer as to why they suffered such a tragedy. The latter gives no logical reply, saying only that no Hebrews died. Perhaps the scriptwriter should have had something along the lines of: “Hey Pharaoh, did you forget all the countless babies that you slaughtered? Or the many warnings you were given that this was coming, and to stop your evil ways?” The scene almost makes Pharaoh seem like the victim, and Moses the villain. It appears that the main aim of the movie was to cast Moses (and God) in a bad light. It really seems like the filmmakers went out of their way to do this.

Moses is shown carelessly abandoning his family when he goes back to Egypt to save his people. His wife and son are angry, emotionally-scarred, losing their faith – and Moses does nothing about it. What was the point of making this shift from the Torah’s original version, which clearly states “Moses took his wife and sons, mounted them upon the donkey, and returned to the land of Egypt…” (Exodus 4:20)? He never abandoned his family, but took everyone with him!

It therefore appears quite evident that the purpose of Exodus: Gods and Kings was to turn one of the most beautiful and enduring stories into an ugly, twisted, and corrupt tale. The sheer number of mistakes is both inexcusable and inexplicable. One who wishes to experience a far truer (and more entertaining) version need only to open and read this week’s Torah portion.