Tag Archives: Yehuda

A Deeper Look at the Sin of the Spies

This week’s parasha is Shlach, which begins with the infamous incident of the spies. God permits Moses to send twelves spies – one representing each of the Twelve Tribes – to explore the land of Israel before its conquest. The spies are apparently shocked by what they see: the land is dotted by impenetrable fortresses and populated by giants! They report back that while the land is indeed fruitful, it is unconquerable. The spies convince the masses to abandon the foray into Israel. Only two of the twelve spies – Joshua and Caleb – maintain that the land is certainly conquerable. Their pleas are unheard, and the nation weeps and wishes to return to Egypt. The people’s lack of faith is astonishing, considering all of the miracles that God had wrought on their behalf. Did they not see how everything God decreed so far had happened precisely? If God promised them the land, how could they even begin to question it?

"Return of the Spies from the Land of Promise" by Gustave Doré

“Return of the Spies from the Land of Promise” by Gustave Doré

It is clear at this point that while the adult Israelite population may have physically left Egypt, they were still very much in Egypt mentally. Despite all the miracles and wonders, they yearned to go back to the house of slavery. They still showed little faith. God remarks that the nation had already tested Him ten times in the short duration since they left Egypt (Numbers 14:22). This people were simply not ready for Israel.

Thus, God decreed that the nation will remain in the Wilderness for forty years – one year for each day that the spies spent in the Holy Land – and the entire adult population would perish in the desert. Only those under the age of twenty would enter the land of Israel, together with Joshua and Caleb, the spies that offered a positive report. It seems that even Moses and Aaron were not spared God’s decree. This is understandable in light of verse 14:5, where Moses and Aaron are speechless, and simply “fall on their faces”. Joshua and Caleb alone speak up.

(Of course, the decree against Moses and Aaron is sealed with the striking of the rock in Numbers 20. However, it is already introduced at this point. The Sages teach that it would have been quite inappropriate for Moses to enter the Holy Land while the nation he led perished in the Wilderness. The captain must go down with his sinking ship!)

While we might understand the mentality of the general population, it is much harder to grasp how the spies, who were specially selected leaders of their tribes, and great people in their own right, could err so terribly. Could there be another explanation for their negative report? Rabbi Shmuel Vital, the son of Rabbi Chaim Vital (the primary disciple of the Arizal), presents one fascinating answer in Sha’ar HaPesukim.

Saving Moses

In the end of the previous parasha (Beha’alotcha), we read about the prophecies of the two elders, Eldad and Meidad (Numbers 11:26). The Torah does not tell us explicitly what it is that they prophesized, but it was bad enough that Joshua wanted Moses to imprison them. Moses calmed Joshua and told him that he is not the only prophet among the people, and he would only wish for the entire nation to be made up of prophets. Alas, the prediction of Eldad and Meidad was indeed true: the Sages state that they foresaw Moses dying in the Wilderness, and Joshua leading the Israelites into the Holy Land.

The incident of the spies follows, and Rabbi Shmuel connects it directly with this prophecy. The spies, along with the entire nation, loved Moses dearly and did not want to see him perish in the desert. They came up with a plan: we’ll convince the people not to enter the Holy Land so that Moses can continue to lead us in the Wilderness! Moreover, to ensure Moses’ unchallenged leadership, the spies actually intended to have Joshua “accidentally” killed! The details of this plot sound like a previous episode: the sale of Joseph. And this is precisely where the Arizal draws a connection.

Brothers Reincarnated

The Arizal (Sha’ar HaGilgulim, Ch. 36) taught that the souls of the sons of Jacob, the progenitors of the Twelve Tribes, actually reincarnated into (or at least temporarily entered) the twelve spies. This is why when the brothers came down to Egypt and were arrested by Joseph, he had accused them of being spies (Genesis 42:9)! Joseph prophetically foresaw that in a future life, they would indeed become spies. In that capacity, they might again turn against one of their brothers. Just like the brothers wanted to have Joseph killed, the spies wanted to rid of Joshua – a direct descendent of Joseph. The Arizal concludes that once the spies wanted to sin, the souls of the brothers actually departed their bodies, and avoided making the same mistake.

Meanwhile, Moses also foresaw the danger that Joshua was in. This is why he renamed him prior to sending him off (Numbers 13:16). Originally, Joshua was named Hoshea, but Moses added a yud to make him Yehoshua. The Arizal explains that by adding this yud, Moses infused him with the soul of his ancestor Levi. The additional spiritual power protected him. (Since the Levite tribe did not have a portion in the land of Israel, they did not send a spy. Instead, Joseph was split into two tribes of Menashe and Ephraim.)

At the same time, the Arizal explains that Caleb was protected two-fold. Firstly, by having the soul of Judah, who repented wholeheartedly for the sale of Joseph and later stood up to him to protect his siblings. Secondly, by being a reincarnation of Abraham’s trusted servant Eliezer. This is why upon entering the land, Caleb went straight to Hebron to pray at the Cave of the Patriarchs. In his lifetime, Eliezer wished nothing more than to be a part of Abraham’s family. He even tried to get his daughter to marry Isaac, but his Canaanite status prevented the union. However, he earned the merit to be reincarnated as an Israelite in the Exodus generation; to stand at Mt. Sinai, become a great leader of Israel, and be one of only two men out of Egypt to settle the Holy Land.

In fact, with regards to this incident, Caleb showed a higher degree of greatness than Joshua, and careful analysis of the text reveals an important lesson about faith and leadership. Rabbi Moshe Wisnefsky writes (based on the teachings of the Lubavitcher Rebbe):

According to the Talmud, Caleb said, “Even if our destination were the heavens and Moses would tell us to make ladders and ascend, we would succeed in all that he instructs” (Sotah 35a; cited by Rashi). Both Joshua and Caleb equally defied the doubt of their colleagues and declared that the people could conquer the land. However, a close look at their words shows a subtle difference between them. Firstly, when both of them spoke, the entire nation wished to stone them; but when Caleb alone spoke, he quieted the entire nation, including the spies.

Secondly, when both of them spoke they used logical reasoning: “do not fear the people of the land, since their protector is gone” (meaning that the righteous among them had died), whereas Caleb himself, in addition to presenting logical arguments, said that they could accomplish even the logically impossible when following Moses’ command and “ascend to heaven.”

These differences reflect an essential distinction in the way Joshua and Caleb resisted the influence of their colleagues: Joshua received inspiration from Moses, who had prayed for him before he left for Canaan. Caleb, on the other hand, sought inspiration on his own. While in Canaan, he prayed at the graves of the patriarchs in Hebron. Joshua’s resilience was a gift, while Caleb’s was self-made. Because Caleb’s resilience was the product of his own efforts, his faith had a stronger impact: he was able to silence the doubts of all the people, even the spies. Furthermore, because God desires our effort, He grants us access to His boundlessness when He sees us doing our best. Thus, Caleb, who had fought doubt with his own efforts, reached this boundlessness, where impossibilities do not exist and “the heavens can be ascended.”

The Stones, Symbols, and Flags of the Twelve Tribes of Israel

Bamidbar is the fourth book of the Torah, and the name of its first parasha. It is known in English as “Numbers”, since it begins with a detailed census of the Jewish population in the wilderness. We are given a description of how the nation was organized in their camps: the tribes of Yehuda, Issachar, and Zevulun were positioned towards the East; Reuven, Shimon, and Gad to the South; Ephraim, Menashe, and Binyamin to the West; and Dan, Asher, and Naphtali to the North. The Levites and kohanim were in the centre. We are told that each of the tribes had their own flag, just as in a large military formation. What did these flags look like? Which colours did they bear, and what symbols graced them?

Modern Rendition of the Choshen, the High Priest's Breastplate

Modern Rendition of the Choshen, the High Priest’s Breastplate

In an intriguing passage, the Midrash (Bamidbar Rabbah 2:7) provides a summary of the flags’ appearance. It begins by telling us that the colours of the flags corresponded to the colours of the stones that were on the Choshen (or Breastplate) of the High Priest. The High Priest was commanded to wear a special breastplate that had twelve precious stones, one for each of the twelve tribes. Each stone had a symbolic meaning unique to that particular tribe.

Jasmine flower

Jasmine flower

 

Reuven’s was the odem, a ruby, and so his flag was red. The symbol on the flag was the duda’im, flowers that Reuven had picked for his mother Leah (Genesis 30:14). It was on account of these flowers that Leah went on to have three more children. Duda’im is often translated as “mandrakes”, though according to Rashi they were of the Jasmine plant.

Shimon had the pitdah, probably topaz, and his flag was green. The symbol upon the flag was an image of the city of Shechem. This is in memory of the episode where Shimon (together with his younger brother Levi) took up swords to decimate the Shechem population after the abduction and rape of their sister Dinah (Genesis 34).

Levi’s was bareket, possibly an emerald or onyx, and the flag had three bands of colours: white, black, and red. Upon the flag was an image of the Urim V’Tumim, the mystical objects kept within the High Priest’s breastplate that were apparently used for communication with the Divine.

Modern-day Coat of Arms of Jerusalem, with the Lion of Judah

Modern-day Coat of Arms of Jerusalem, with the Lion of Judah

Yehuda had nofech, a stone more difficult to identify, with different opinions holding that it was either red, green, or blue. The Midrash here describes the flag as blue like the skies. Emblazoned upon it was the image of a lion. Before his passing, Jacob blessed each of his twelve sons, and in his blessing, he described Yehuda as a lion (Genesis 49:9). The lion would later become associated with the Davidic dynasty of kings (which hails from the tribe of Yehuda), and with the seat of their throne in Jerusalem, a city that goes by a number of names, including Ariel (“God’s lion”).

Issachar’s was a sapphire (or lapis lazuli) stone, and his flag was of a very dark blue colour. Upon it was the image of the sun and moon. The Midrash explains why, citing I Chronicles 12:33, which describes the people of Issachar as being wise in astronomical and chronological matters.

Zevulun had a yahalom, today’s Hebrew word for diamond, though there may be other possibilities. Zevulun’s flag was white, and bore a depiction of a ship, again based on Jacob’s blessing to the tribe to be successful sea-going merchants, and live along the Israeli coastline (Genesis 49:13).

Dan had leshem, amber, with a flag of a sapphire-like colour (despite the fact that amber is typically golden-red). Upon the flag was the symbol of a snake, once more based on Jacob’s blessing (v. 17). Likewise, Gad’s flag bore the image of a military camp (v. 19), on a black and white background, based on Gad’s stone of shevo, a black agate or obsidian.

Amethyst, the Greek root of which is literally "not intoxicating"

Amethyst, the Greek root of which is literally “not intoxicating”

Naphtali had achlamah, the purple amethyst. His flag was of a similar colour, described by the Midrash as pure wine that isn’t too strong. It is interesting that the Midrash should compare it to wine, since amethyst was believed in ancient times to keep one sober and prevent drunkenness. Upon the flag was an image of a gazelle, also from Jacob’s blessing (v. 21).

Asher’s stone of tarshish is certainly the least identifiable of the dozen. Opinions range from chrysolite and coal to flint and hyacinth. The Midrash doesn’t help in clarifying the matter, describing the flag as similar to the colour of an expensive jewel stone worn by women. Whatever the case, the image upon the flag was that of an olive tree, since Jacob blessed Asher with fatty riches and delicacies (v. 20).

In the encampment, the tribes of Ephraim and Menashe were counted separately. On the breastplate, however, they were counted as one, under the banner of their father Yosef. This is because Ephraim and Menashe were not Jacob’s sons, but his grandsons, and on his deathbed, Jacob elevated their status to that of his own sons. Thus, we always maintain that there are twelve tribes: if we include the priestly Levites in the count, then Ephraim and Menashe are combined into one, Yosef, to ensure twelve. If we do not include the Levites since, after all, they are in a different class (and did not inherit any land for that matter), Ephraim and Menashe are counted independently of each other.

Malachite

Malachite

The stone of Yosef was shoham, which also has a number of opinions to its identity. The Midrash tells us that the flag was black, which supports the suggestion that shoham is malachite, a stone that has dark green and black colours. Ephraim’s black flag had a bull depicted on it. This is drawn from Moses’ final blessing to the tribes of Yosef (Deuteronomy 33:17), which the Midrash quotes. (Jacob’s blessing also mentions the word for a bull, but it is translated differently there.) The Midrash also tells us that the bull represents Joshua, who was of the tribe of Ephraim.

Based on the same verse in Moses’ blessing, Menashe’s black flag had a re’em, a horned animal sometimes translated as a unicorn, or perhaps an ox or even a rhinoceros. Again, the Midrash points out that this represented the Biblical judge Gideon, who was of the tribe of Menashe.

Last but not least, Binyamin’s flag famously depicted a wolf, based on Jacob’s description (Genesis 49:27). The stone of Binyamin was the yashfe, another unidentified one. The Midrash tells us that Binyamin’s flag had a mix of the colours of all the other tribal flags. This is likely due to the fact that Binyamin was the beloved little brother of the family, and all of his older siblings, though sometimes at odds with one another, always united to protect him. It is said that this is the reason why the Holy of Holies in the Temple was specifically in the territory of Binyamin (while the rest of the Temple was in the land of Yehuda), since the whole nation put aside their differences and united as one when it came to the smallest of their brothers.

The Eighth Day of Pesach: Isaac, the Afikoman, and Mashiach ben Yosef

Of the three patriarchs, the holiday of Passover is most intimately tied to Isaac. According to tradition, Isaac was born on Passover. Commenting on Genesis 18:10, Rashi explains that the angels’ visit to Abraham and Sarah occurred on Passover, and the angels promised a son to be born – Isaac – exactly one year from that time. This important detail helps to solve a key chronological problem. Earlier, God had told Abraham that his offspring would be subjugated for 400 years. However, when one makes an accounting of the timeline, they will find that the Jews were only in Egypt for a total of 210 years! How could this be?

Commenting on that verse (Genesis 15:13), Rashi calculates how the Exodus occurred exactly 400 years from the birth of Isaac. Thus, God’s word was perfectly fulfilled, since Isaac was the very first of Abraham and Sarah’s offspring. Although Isaac was not subjugated in the sense that the Jews in Egypt were, nonetheless he was certainly troubled by the Canaanites and Philistines, as the Torah records, and was considered a “foreigner” in the Holy Land throughout his life, since God had not yet officially granted the land to the Jews, nor did Isaac settle it permanently.

Digging further, if Isaac was born on the first day of Passover, then his brit milah (circumcision) would have been on the eighth day of Passover. Though the eighth day is not celebrated in Israel, it is celebrated in the diaspora. According to Chassidic custom, as initiated by the Baal Shem Tov (the founder of Chassidism) the eighth day of Passover is associated with Mashiach. In fact, it is customary to hold a Seudat Mashiach, a “Mashiach Feast” on the final afternoon of the holiday, complete with matzahs and four cups of wine. Just as Passover celebrates the First Redemption (led by Moses), the last day of Passover is meant to represent the Final Redemption (led by Mashiach). And it is only commemorated in the diaspora since, after all, it is diaspora Jewry that needs the Final Redemption and the Ingathering of the Exiles more than anyone.

Finally, during the Pesach seder we have three matzahs to go along with the Pesach platter. It is taught that these three matzahs represent the three patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. One of the fifteen steps in the seder is yachatz, where the middle of the three matzahs is broken in half. The larger half is covered and hidden as the afikoman, while the smaller half remains at the seder table. Thus, the matzah which we break is specifically the one associated with Isaac.

So then, what is the deeper connection between Mashiach and the Redemption, Passover and the Afikoman, and the forefather Isaac?

Who is Mashiach?

The Jewish mystics teach that there are actually two messiahs: Mashiach ben Yosef, and Mashiach ben David. This is derived from a number of texts and principles. One of these is the fact that the Tanakh has a clear pattern when it comes to major national events: first comes a descendant of the matriarch Rachel to usher it in, and then comes a descendant of the matriarch Leah to complete the mission. For example, Yosef (a son of Rachel) came to Egypt first to set the stage, and then came Yehuda (a son of Leah) to prepare the land for the actual arrival of the rest of the family (see Genesis 46:28). First, Joshua (of the tribe of Ephraim, and a descendant of Rachel) brought the Jews into the land of Israel following the Exodus, then Othniel (from the tribe of Yehuda) finished the job of conquering and settling the land. The first king of Israel was Saul (from the tribe of Benjamin, and a descendant of Rachel) and only then came King David (again of Yehuda). Thus, in every major event, we see clearly that first comes a descendant of Rachel to prepare the way and fight the battles, and only afterwards comes a descendant of Leah to finish the job.

In the same way, the Sages teach that first comes Mashiach ben Yosef (a descendant of Rachel), whose mission is to fight all the battles on behalf of Israel, and only after this comes Mashiach ben David (a descendant of Leah), who completes the messianic role. And who is Mashiach ben Yosef? Amazingly, the Sages say that this is none other than Isaac, reincarnated!

Of all the patriarchs and major Torah figures, Isaac is spoken of the least in Scripture. Hardly anything is said of him. It is explained that this is because Isaac has not completed his mission, and his story is not over. He has yet to fight many battles. The Sages permute his name – Itzchak (יצחק) – into the words Ketz Chai (קץ חי), literally that he “will live [again] at the End”. This is one reason why Itzchak (which means “will laugh”) is in the future tense. Isaac is Mashiach ben Yosef, who will come at the End to fight the final battles. Beautifully, the gematria of Itzchak (יצחק) is 208, equivalent to Ben Yosef (בן יוסף), also 208.

This brings us back to Passover and the afikoman. The middle matzah is broken in half. One half – the one associated with the patriarch Isaac – remains on the seder plate, together with the other matzahs that symbolize the other patriarchs. The other half – the larger one – is hidden away, only to be revealed at the very end. This is symbolic of Isaac’s final role as that of Mashiach, whose arrival is also concealed until the very ‘End of Days’. And on the eighth and final day of the Passover holiday – the day on which Isaac was circumcised and entered into the Covenant – we hold a ‘Mashiach Feast’ to celebrate the coming Final Redemption, may it arrive speedily and in our days.

Chag sameach!

Was Joseph Really Sold By His Brothers?

‘Joseph Sold by His Brethren’ by Gustave Doré

This week’s Torah portion, Vayeshev, describes the infamous sale of Joseph into slavery by his very own brothers. At least, this is the commonly-held view of what had transpired. A closer examination reveals that the story is a little more complex than that, and the brothers are not as guilty as they may seem at first glance.

First, the background: The parasha begins by telling us “These are the geneologies of Jacob…” (Genesis 37:2) and then only mentioning Joseph. What about all of Jacob’s other children? They are not mentioned, and the text continues to describe how Joseph was the favourite of his father. It’s as if Jacob didn’t even pay attention to any of his other children. He knits a special garment just for Joseph, and spends most of his time with this son, while the others are off shepherding in faraway pastures. Not surprisingly, this caused some tension among the sons.

The tension was further exacerbated by the fact that Joseph would apparently “snitch” on his brothers. Though the commentaries suggest that this was done with positive intentions, with the hopes of improving his brothers’ conduct, nonetheless it may have been misinterpreted as a form of lashon hara – evil speech. On top of this, Joseph had a number of dreams where he saw himself dominating over his family, with the others bowing down to him. He proudly shared these stories with his siblings. Naturally, the brothers thought that he was some kind of megalomaniac who wished to rule over them. They soon began thinking of a way to get rid of him.

Many question how it was possible for such great people, the sons of Israel, and the progenitors of the Twelve Tribes, to even think of such actions. However, there is quite a bit of logic in their plans. The brothers knew that essentially every preceding generation in their family line had at least one wayward son who was wicked. In their father Jacob’s time, it was their uncle Esau, and in their grandfather Isaac’s time, it was his half-brother Ishmael. Even before this, Abraham had Haran, the sons of Noah had Ham, and all the way back to Eden where Abel had Cain. There was a clear pattern of one child doing more harm than good. The sons of Israel thought that Joseph played that role in their generation. Their intention was to get him out of the way before he could do some serious damage. But how?

Putting Joseph to the Test

Led by Shimon, the brothers said, “And now, let us kill him, and we will send him into one of the pits, and we will say, ‘A wild beast devoured him,’ and we will see what will become of his dreams.” (v. 20) Rashi draws from the Midrash when commenting on this verse, pointing out an apparent inconsistency: why would the brothers say “we will see what will become of his dreams” if they were going to kill him? Obviously, if they were going to kill him, his dreams would not materialize!

What Rashi is telling us here is that the brothers essentially put Joseph to a test. If he was indeed the wicked one, as they believed, then he deserved to die, and they would succeed in killing him, proving that his dreams were nothing more than crazy fantasies. On the other hand, if the dreams were truly prophetic, and Joseph was really the greatest among them, then they could never succeed in killing him anyway, and his dreams would materialize after all.

The brothers agreed that this is the best course of action, but Reuben protested. “And Reuben said to them, ‘Do not shed blood! Send him into this pit, which is in the wilderness, but do not lay a hand upon him’” (v. 22). Reuben agreed that Joseph should be put to the test, but they should certainly not be trying to kill him. Instead, they should just leave him in a pit in the wilderness. If he were to be saved from such an ordeal, it would be proof enough.

At the same time, Reuben intended to return to the pit and save Joseph himself. Reuben, the elder of the brothers, understood that the others had taken their understanding of God’s ways in the wrong direction. They thought that God would save Joseph if He so wished. Reuben understood that the world didn’t necessarily work that way. At the end of the day, God gave man the gift of free will. People can use this gift for the good, or for the bad, and God rarely intervenes. If the brothers tried to kill Joseph, he could indeed die, despite his greatness and prophetic dreams. (An analogy to this twisted logic may be one where a murderer says that since he succeeded in killing another, God must have wanted it that way, and he should be exonerated! Of course, this is completely false.) Reuben recognized his brothers’ flawed logic, and convinced them not to kill Joseph. Nonetheless, they would still throw him into the pit.

After they did so, they sat down for a meal and spotted a caravan of Ishmaelite merchants passing by on their way to Egypt. Yehuda got an idea: “Come, let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and our hand shall not be upon him, for he is our brother, our flesh” (v. 27). Instead of killing Joseph, Yehuda proposed selling him into slavery. Why would he suggest such a thing? Did the brothers really need twenty pieces of silver? We have already read previously how wealthy the family was; it is unthinkable that the ten of them would sell their brother for just two silver coins each. No, Yehuda’s suggestion had far more meaning. Joseph had dreamt and told his brothers that he would one day rule over them. So, what could be better to test Joseph than to sell him into slavery, the very opposite of what he dreamt? Can it ever be possible for a slave to rise to the level of royalty, especially in a foreign land? If this could happen, it would indeed be miraculous, and no better proof would be necessary. The brothers would sell Joseph into slavery. But somebody beat them to it.

Who Sold Joseph?

The Torah continues to tell us that “Midianite men were passing by, merchants, and they pulled and lifted Joseph from the pit, and they sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty [pieces of] silver…” (v. 28). While the brothers were deliberating on what to do, Midianite men passed by and discovered Joseph weak and helpless in the pit. They captured him and sold him to the Ishmaelites. “And Reuben returned to the pit, and behold, Joseph was not in the pit… and he returned to his brothers and said, ‘The boy is gone!’” (v. 29-30). Clearly, the brothers were not the ones who sold Joseph! Still, they did have the intention to do so, and that was enough for them to be blamed for Joseph being sold. (Whether they would have actually sold him at the end or not is uncertain; after all, they had also intended to kill him, then to abandon him in a pit, and in both cases they changed their minds.)

Ultimately, Joseph’s descent into slavery in Egypt really was part of the cosmic plan. By trying to get rid of him, the brothers actually facilitated the realization of Joseph’s dream that they were trying so hard to prevent! As a slave, he was purchased by a wealthy and influential Egyptian, which led him into imprisonment with a couple of other important people from Pharaoh’s court, and through interpreting their dreams, Joseph earned an audience with the Pharaoh himself. From there, he rose through the ranks to become viceroy of all Egypt, and even Pharaoh was only more powerful than Joseph in name. Soon after, the brothers were forced to go down to Egypt to get food when the whole region was hit with a devastating famine. Joseph was the one in charge of distributing the food, and the brothers ended up before him once again. This time, they were bowing to him. Over two decades later, Joseph’s dreams had finally come true.