Tag Archives: 130

How the Patriarchs Rectified Adam

‘Garden of Eden’, by Thomas Cole

This week we read a double Torah portion, Behar-Bechukotai. In its commentary on the first of the two, the Zohar states that the Patriarchs—Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob—each rectified one part of Adam (Zohar III, 221b, Ra’aya Mehemna). Through the consumption of the Forbidden Fruit and the aftermath of that event, the Zohar states that Adam was, in effect, guilty of three cardinal sins.

In Jewish law, one is supposed to violate any mitzvah if they are threatened with death—except for three: idolatry, forbidden sexual relations (giluy ‘arayot), and murder (see Mishneh Torah, Yesodei HaTorah 5:2). When Adam and Eve consumed the Fruit, the sin was akin to idolatry: ignoring God’s command and taking the advice of the Serpent instead. Moreover, idol worship itself began in the generation of Enosh, Adam’s grandson (Genesis 4:26). Adam was alive and well at the time, and should have prevented this development. For these reasons, it is considered that Adam transgressed the sin of idolatry.

Similarly, he was held accountable for sexual transgression. We read in the Torah (Genesis 5:3) that Adam was 130 years old when he and Eve had their third son, Shet (or Seth). Why did the couple wait 130 years to have another child? The Sages explain that after the Forbidden Fruit, Adam and Eve were so dejected that they separated for 130 years. Unfortunately, during this time Adam was unable to control his urges and “wasted seed”. (We have addressed this issue and the 130-year period before in depth here.) This is where he was guilty of giluy ‘arayot, sexual sin.

Finally, the consumption of the Forbidden Fruit brought death to the world, as God had warned Adam and Eve. Without that, there would have been no murder. Adam and Eve experienced this firsthand when their eldest son slew his brother. Again, Adam failed to prevent history’s first murder. For these reasons, Adam was also guilty of bloodshed. The soul of Adam needed rectification, and this is where the Patriarchs stepped in.

Repairing Adam

The Zohar tells us that each of the Patriarchs contained a part of Adam’s soul. Abraham came first, and purified the part of Adam that was stained with idolatry. This happened when King Nimrod arrested Abraham for preaching monotheism and for making fools of the idolaters (see Beresheet Rabbah 38:13). Nimrod gave Abraham an ultimatum: bow down to the idols, or be thrown into a fiery furnace. Abraham refused in an incredible display of faith, so Nimrod threw him in. At this point, God miraculously saved Abraham from the flames. (Amazingly, this was actually the very first time God revealed Himself to Abraham.) This act rectified the sin of idolatry within the soul of Adam.

Next came Isaac. At the Akedah, he laid down his neck and was willing to die for a mitzvah. This was a rectification for bloodshed. (For more on this rectification, see ‘Secrets of the Akedah’ in Garments of Light.) Finally, it was Jacob who purified sexual sin. When Jacob blessed his eldest son Reuben (Genesis 49:3), he said that Reuben was the first of his “strength”, which can also be read “my first emission”. The Sages derive from this that Reuben’s conception was literally the very first time that Jacob had an emission—he was 84 years old at the time! Through his purity, Jacob rectified Adam’s sin of wasted seed.

In these ways, the Patriarchs repaired the soul of the first man, and merited to have their faces adorn the corners of the Merkavah, God’s Divine Chariot. Of course, a chariot has a fourth wheel. The fourth was reserved for the one who could complete the entire rectification—not just for Adam, but for all of mankind.

A Gift of 70 Years

The Torah tells us that Adam lived 930 years. This is a peculiar number. Could he not have lived a round 1000? After all, God had told Adam that if he eats from the Forbidden Fruit, he would die that “same day” (Genesis 2:17), and a day for God is equal to 1000 years (Psalm 90:4)! Indeed, Adam should have lived 1000 years. However, when God gave Adam a preview of all the future generations, Adam saw that David was destined to be stillborn. Adam decided to give up 70 years of his own life to David, which is why Adam lived 930 years, and David lived exactly 70 years. The Zohar relates this narrative (see I, 55a), yet later on it also says that David received his 70 years from each of the Patriarchs! (I, 168a-b) How can this be?

When factoring in the above, we can easily find the solution: Each of the Patriarchs received a part of Adam’s soul first, and after being rectified within the Patriarchs, those parts then moved on to David. The Zohar explains that Abraham gave 5 years of his life to David, since Abraham should have lived a complete 180 years, but we see in the Torah that he lived 175 years. Jacob gave up 28 years to David, since he should have lived at least as long as his grandfather Abraham (175 years), but we read that he only lived 147 years. Finally, Joseph gave up 37 of his own years to David, since Joseph should have lived at least as long as his father Jacob (147 years), but we read that he only lived 110 years. In total, David received 70 years (5+28+37).

You might be wondering why David got 37 years from Joseph, and not Isaac. Isaac did live a full 180 years, and gave up nothing to David. The Zohar states the reason for this, but it is beyond the scope of our present discussion. It suffices to say that instead of Isaac, David received a piece from Joseph. Through this, Joseph and David became forever linked. This is another reason why the messiah has two elements: Mashiach ben Yosef and Mashiach ben David. In fact, David was the first potential messiah. He had the opportunity to rectify the cardinal sins for all of mankind. Unfortunately, he hit a bit of a snag.

Rectifying the World

Although our Sages warn that one shouldn’t conclude that David sinned in any way (Shabbat 56a), in another place they affirm that David did sin on some level (Yoma 22b). Not surprisingly, the Sages list three sins of David, and it isn’t difficult to see how they neatly parallel the three cardinal sins. First on the list is arranging the death of Uriah the Hittite, then taking a census of Israel, and finally the incident with Batsheva. The first is, of course, bloodshed. The second came as a result of heeding Satan, as we read “And Satan stood up against Israel, and incited David to number Israel.” (I Chronicles 21:1) Like with Adam and Eve, this was under the category of idolatry. Finally, the incident with Batsheva was a case of a forbidden sexual union (although our Sages explain how it wasn’t technically forbidden for a number of reasons).

While David did sin, he undoubtedly repented for these sins. He also suffered tremendously for them, as recounted in detail in the Tanakh, and ultimately repented to such a great extent that our Sages say he completely eliminated his yetzer hara, the “evil inclination”. We read that “David succeeded in all his ways; and God was with him.” (I Samuel 18:14) The Sages point out that if God “was with him”, David must surely have been entirely free of sin (Shabbat 56a). Meanwhile, other verses show us how dearly God loved David (his name literally means “beloved”). David reached such a high level that he merited to became the fourth face of the Chariot (Zohar I, 60b).

Having said that, David was still unable to fulfil the role of Mashiach in his generation. This is why the soul of David will return in Mashiach. As we’ve explained in the past, the Arizal points out that “Adam” stands for Adam, David, Mashiach—the first, middle, and “last” being of history. This is why Mashiach himself has to go through a set of rectifications for the three cardinal sins.

Once those tikkunim are affected, the cardinal sins will be defeated for good and expunged from the world. There will be no more bloodshed, as Isaiah famously prophesied: “…and they shall beat their swords into plowshares…” (Isaiah 2:4) There will be no more sexual sins, as prophesied by Daniel: “They shall purify themselves, and make themselves white, and be entirely refined…” (Daniel 12:10) And there will be no more idolatry, as Zechariah prophesied: “…in that day God will be one, and His name one.” (Zechariah 14:9)

Shabbat Shalom!


Shavuot is just two weeks away! Make your all-night learning meaningful and do it right with Tikkun Leil Shavuot – the Arizal’s Torah Study Guide.

The Flood, the Tower, and Egypt: Why Did the Israelites Have to be Enslaved?

This week’s Torah portion is Miketz, which continues the narrative of Joseph’s meteoric rise to power in Egypt. Two years after Joseph correctly interpreted the dreams of his co-prisoners, the Pharaoh’s servants, he is summoned to interpret the bizarre dream of Pharaoh himself. Contrary to popular belief, it was not that Joseph was the only one who had an interpretation at all. The Pharaoh had his own soothsayers, priests, and interpreters. Rather, Joseph’s dream was the only one that came with a plan of action. Impressed, Pharaoh appointed Joseph to put his plan in motion. And Joseph did not disappoint.

After seven years of bountiful harvests, the seven years of famine began. The people quickly ran out of food. (Rashi comments here that although all of Egypt knew that a famine would come, and the whole population stored food for themselves, they found that what they had stored had rotted away.) Thankfully, Joseph had stored plenty of provisions in the royal granaries. The populace “cried out to Pharaoh” for bread, and Pharaoh told them: “Go to Joseph, and do what he tells you.” Rashi quotes a famous Midrash that says Joseph decreed that anyone wanting to receive food must first be circumcised!

Carved Circumcision Scene from a Temple in Luxor, Egypt, c. 1360 BCE (Credit: Lasse Jansen)

Carved circumcision scene from a temple in Luxor, Egypt, c. 1360 BCE (Credit: Lasse Jansen)

Amazingly, archaeological evidence shows that circumcision was, in fact, common during Egypt’s 18th dynasty (1543-1292 BCE), which is when these events of the Torah would have taken place. Last year, we wrote of the archaeological evidence corroborating the story of Joseph through the historical figure of Yuya. Yuya also lived during the 18th dynasty, around the time of the carved scene depicted here.

History aside, the big question is: why would Joseph want the Egyptians circumcised?

Adam, the Flood, and the Tower of Babel

The bulk of the Arizal’s commentary on this parasha (in Sha’ar HaPesukim) is dedicated to the above question. He presents an incredible answer, and starts with the following:

“Those 130 years before Moses was born were in order to bring down the sparks of the holy souls that were released by Adam, the first man, through his wasted seed during his first 130 years.”

Biblical chronology shows us that the Israelites spent a total of 210 years in Egypt. The Torah also tells us that Moses was around 80 years old at the time of the Exodus. That means he was born 130 years after the Israelite immigration to Egypt. At the same time, the Torah tells us that Adam had his third son, Shet (or Seth, in English), when he was 130 years old.

Many Jewish texts suggest that after Cain had tragically killed Abel, Adam decided not to have any more children. After 130 years, he was rebuked by the wives of Lemech for separating from Eve, and immediately realized his faulty ways. At that point, Adam and Eve had Seth. However, during those 130 years apart, it is said that Adam had wasted his seed. Since the seed contains the potential for life, when it emerges it produces a soul. However, these souls that Adam created over the 130 years had no body to inhabit. Where did they go? The Arizal continues:

“First, [the souls] came into the bodies of the people of the Flood generation, who also wasted their seed… so they were reincarnated once more in the generation of the Dispersion.”

The damaged souls that Adam had created came down into this world into the bodies of the pre-Flood generation. It was incumbent upon them to perform a tikkun, a correction for their souls, accomplished through meritorious deeds and mitzvot. Unfortunately, the damaged souls were drawn to evil, and themselves became very licentious. They perished in the Great Flood, and were reincarnated into the next generation. However, that generation also went waywardly, and built the infamous Tower of Babel.

“Now, they reincarnated once more into those Egyptians. Joseph knew through Ruach HaKodesh [Divine Inspiration] that they possessed those souls from the wasted seed, and therefore decreed circumcision upon them, to begin the repair of their soul roots.”

Kabbalistically, circumcision is meant to be a reparation for sexual sins. Even on the simplest of levels, a man’s circumcision is supposed to constantly remind him that sex is not to be abused or misused. A man is supposed to be in control of his sexual urges, and channel them only for holy purposes: building a loving relationship with one’s spouse, as well as establishing a proper, righteous family. More spiritually, the act of circumcision creates a metaphysical imprint that is meant to repair sins of a sexual nature, not only for the individual, but also on a more elevated, cosmic level.

“…After they were circumcised, their process of tikkun had begun, and they were then reincarnated into the generation of Israelites during those 130 years [in Egypt, before Moses was born]. And they were forced into difficult labour to purify them, especially to correct the sin of the Tower generation, who also built with bricks and mortar.”

The Egyptians that Joseph had commanded to be circumcised ended up reincarnating as the Israelite slaves. It was decreed upon them from Heaven that they should work hard in servitude as a means of spiritual purification. The mechanism of servitude – construction of buildings through brick and mortar – was meant to be a measure for measure retribution: just as they had built the Tower of Babel for evil means, they were now building in order to reverse their previously sinful ways.

Once their purification was complete, these souls were ready for redemption, and thus Moses was born, precisely 130 years into the timeline, just as Adam had initially created those souls over a 130 year period. It is also interesting to point out that the physical father of all these Israelite souls was Jacob, who came to Egypt when he was 130 years old (as we read next week in Genesis 47:9).

The Arizal thus gives us a profound answer, and not only to the question of why Joseph had the Egyptians circumcised. This short passage also explains why the Flood and Tower generations were particularly drawn to evil, why the Israelites had to be enslaved (since God does not decree any undeserved suffering upon anyone), and why Moses was born exactly when he was.

Ultimately, it is said that the generation of Mashiach will be a rerun of the generation of Moses. It is therefore not surprising that the world today is once again mired in sexual immorality and licentious behaviour. May God give us the strength to overcome all those challenges, and merit to see the coming redemption soon.