Tag Archives: Adam and Eve

Who is Mashiach?

Today is Tisha b’Av, a fast day commemorating a number of historical tragedies for the Jewish people, most notably the destruction of both Holy Temples in Jerusalem. It is famously said that on the very day that the Temple was destroyed, Mashiach was born. This statement is not to be taken literally since the Temple was last destroyed nearly two millennia ago and Mashiach has still not come. Some believe it means that Mashiach—whoever he is—will be born on the ninth of Av. That, too, is problematic since, for example, the false messiah Shabbatai Tzvi was born on the ninth of Av and this was one point that people used to “prove” he was Mashiach. Another, more likely, possibility is that Mashiach will first be revealed on Tisha b’Av. The most straight-forward explanation is simply that on the very day the Temple was destroyed, God brought into existence the soul that would one day rebuild the Temple. The destruction of the Temple was not at all permanent, and when it was destroyed, the seeds of its eventual reconstruction were planted.

So, who is Mashiach? What else do we know about him from our authentic ancient sources? These are immensely important questions because many of the false messianic movements in history (from Jesus to Bar Kochva to Shabbatai Tzvi and to the modern day) emerged out of ignorance of who Mashiach is supposed to be. Had more people been aware of the qualifications required to be Mashiach, perhaps fewer would have been duped into such movements. A look through our ancient sources reveals a great deal of information regarding the identity of Mashiach, his purpose, and what we should expect from his life’s work. Continue reading

How the Patriarchs Rectified Adam

‘Garden of Eden’, by Thomas Cole

This week we read a double Torah portion, Behar-Bechukotai. In its commentary on the first of the two, the Zohar states that the Patriarchs—Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob—each rectified one part of Adam (Zohar III, 221b, Ra’aya Mehemna). Through the consumption of the Forbidden Fruit and the aftermath of that event, the Zohar states that Adam was, in effect, guilty of three cardinal sins.

In Jewish law, one is supposed to violate any mitzvah if they are threatened with death—except for three: idolatry, forbidden sexual relations (giluy ‘arayot), and murder (see Mishneh Torah, Yesodei HaTorah 5:2). When Adam and Eve consumed the Fruit, the sin was akin to idolatry: ignoring God’s command and taking the advice of the Serpent instead. Moreover, idol worship itself began in the generation of Enosh, Adam’s grandson (Genesis 4:26). Adam was alive and well at the time, and should have prevented this development. For these reasons, it is considered that Adam transgressed the sin of idolatry.

Continue reading

The Torah’s Missing Verses

In most publications of Chumash, each parasha ends with a short statement detailing the number of verses in that parasha, as well as a mnemonic (based on gematria) to help a person remember the number. For example, parashat Noach has 153 verses, and one mnemonic to remember this is Betzalel (בצלאל), a word which has a gematria of 153. What is the connection between Noah and Betzalel? First, Noah and his family were sheltered in the Ark by the “Shadow of God” (the literal meaning of betzel El). Second, it is an allusion to the other great ark-builder in the Torah, Betzalel ben Uri, who constructed the Ark of the Covenant.

Basic Gematria Chart

The following parasha, Lech Lecha, has 126 verses, and one mnemonic that the Sages gave is nimlu (נמלו), which has a value of 126 and means “they were circumcised”, since the parasha ends with Abraham and his entire male household getting circumcised. Every parasha similarly has an interesting mnemonic at the end to remember its verses. The mnemonic for this week’s parasha, Tzav (צו) is, uniquely, also tzav (צו)! This is because it just so happens that the number of verses in parashat Tzav is exactly equal to the gematria of tzav (96) itself.

At the very end of the Chumash, there is a note on the total number of verses in Moshe’s Torah. The Torah that we each have today has 5845 verses. This sounds alright, except that we read in the Talmud (Kiddushin 30a) “the Sages taught there are 5888 verses in a Sefer Torah.” Where are the missing 43 verses?

Continue reading