Tag Archives: King David

Hidden Symbolism of the Mishkan and the 39 Melakhot of Shabbat

A Modern Replica of the Mishkan in Timna, Israel

This week we read a double parasha, Vayak’hel-Pekudei, which focuses on the construction of the Mishkan, the mobile Tabernacle that served as the Israelites’ Temple in the Wilderness (and for centuries afterwards). The parasha begins with the command to observe the Sabbath: “Six days work may be done, but on the seventh day you shall have sanctity, a day of complete rest to God…” (Exodus 35:2) Immediately following this command is the instruction for the Israelites to gather materials for the construction of the Mishkan and its vessels, for “every wise-hearted person among you shall come and make everything that God has commanded.” (Exodus 35:10)

This juxtaposition classically alludes to the fact that the types of actions and works forbidden on Shabbat are those specifically used in constructing and maintaining the Mishkan. The Mishnah (Shabbat 7:2) lists 39 such actions:

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What is Happiness?

The Torah describes the holiday of Sukkot as being especially happy, and commands us to be akh sameach, “only happy” (Deuteronomy 16:15). When we look across Judaism, we find that there are actually three more holidays that are described similarly. Purim is the next one, of which the Talmud famously states that one must “increase in happiness” during the month in which Purim takes place (Ta’anit 29a). This is based on Scripture, where we read “And to the Jews was light, happiness, joy and prestige” (Esther 8:16). The last two specially-happy days are Tu b’Av and Yom Kippur, of which the Talmud states “there were never in Israel greater days of joy than the Fifteenth of Av and Yom Kippur” (Ta’anit 26b).

Why are these four holidays happier than the others? What is their connection to happiness? To answer that, we must first explore a bigger question: what exactly is happiness? Of course, we have all experienced happiness and innately know what it is. The real question is: what is the proper path to attaining true and lasting happiness? If we take a brief trip through centuries of philosophical thought, we will find that there are four major answers to this question. While every philosopher and school of philosophy had their own slight variation, we can group all of their answers into four categories:

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Understanding the 5 Afflictions of Yom Kippur

Tonight we begin to observe Yom Kippur and take upon ourselves five afflictions, as taught in the Mishnah: abstaining from eating and drinking, bathing, anointing with oils, wearing shoes, and sexual intimacy (Yoma 8:1). Rabbi Ovadiah of Bartenura (c. 1445-1515) comments, as the Sages explain, that these prohibitions are derived from the five times that the Torah speaks of afflicting one’s soul on Yom Kippur. The number five is most significant when it comes to Yom Kippur. The Ba’al HaTurim (Rabbi Yakov ben Asher, c. 1269-1343) comments on Leviticus 16:14 that the five services performed in the Temple on Yom Kippur parallel the five prayer services that we recite on Yom Kippur (Arvit, Shacharit, Mussaf, Minchah, Neilah), as well as the five times that the Kohen Gadol would immerse in the mikveh, and the five souls of a person which are purified on this day. (For an explanation of these five souls, see A Mystical Map of Your Soul.)

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