Tag Archives: Ehud Barak

Pharaoh and the Arab-Israeli Conflict

‘Moses and Aaron Before Pharaoh’ by Gustave Doré

In this week’s parasha, Va’era, we famously read how Pharaoh “hardened his heart” in refusing to give the Israelites freedom, despite seeing the great miracles wrought by God. It is in this week’s parasha more than any other that the term appears, whether it is God promising to harden Pharaoh’s heart (Exodus 7:3), and actually doing so (9:12), or Pharaoh himself hardening his own heart (8:28). While several times it is God hardening Pharaoh’s heart in order to bring about the sequence of supernatural events necessary to prove to the world that He exists, other times Pharaoh hardens his own heart, with no divine intervention. Pharaoh was indeed a most-stubborn and wicked person, refusing to see the Hand of the Divine, to the great detriment of his own people.

Recently, I was listening to an audiobook about the Arab-Israeli Conflict, and realized that same stubborn, wicked spirit exists in the world today. The particular thing that struck a chord was a reminder of the infamous events of the 2000 Camp David Accords. In these talks, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak agreed to almost every request that Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat had brought to the table. Even President Bill Clinton was surprised at Barak’s willingness, and was certain a landmark deal would be reached. And then, just like that, Arafat got up from the table and walked away. He did not offer a counter-proposal, nor give any feedback whatsoever. When speaking of this years later, Clinton said: “I killed myself to get the Palestinians a state. I had a deal they turned down, that would have given them all of Gaza, between 96 and 97% of the West Bank, compensating land in Israel—you name it.” No matter what they were offered, Arafat and the Palestinians refused time and again.

How can this be? It is beyond evident that neither Arafat, nor the Palestinian leaders after him, are interested in any kind of peace. Their only goal, as stated over and over again, is the extermination of Israel. Even if they would be given everything they claim to want, they will not stop their campaign of terror and jihad. Their fight will continue until Israel ceases to exist and the Jewish “infidel” is driven into the Sea. This is, after all, their most popular chant today—often mindlessly repeated by ignorant liberal Westerners—“From the River to the Sea, Palestine will be free.” What many of those Westerners don’t realize is that the Palestinians who shout this chant mean “free of Jews”, of course.

That’s why it is unlikely there could ever be a “two-state” solution. All this would do is give the Arabs a base-camp from which to launch the next phase of their war of extermination. Hamas makes this crystal clear, and Fatah believes it, too, although it has succeeded in convincing the world that they are “moderate” and willing to make peace. This is the same Fatah that recently fought against a motion at the UN to condemn Hamas. They admitted that Fatah and Hamas are really after the same thing, through different means. Fatah’s Abbas Zaki said: “If Hamas, which is involved in resistance, is considered a terrorist movement, this means that all groups of the Palestinian people are involved in terrorism.” In other words, there is little difference between Hamas and Fatah; their end goal is the same. Indeed, in both Fatah and Hamas homes, the same television shows repeat the same verses from the Muslim Hadith (Sahih Bukhari 4:52:176):

Allah’s Apostle said: “You [Muslims] will fight the Jews until they will hide behind stones. The stones will say: ‘Oh Abdullah [servant of Allah]! There is a Jew hiding behind me; come kill him.’”

Among others, the head of the Palestinian Islamic Council, Sheikh Mohammad Nimr Zaghmout said in 2007:

The Prophet of Allah has promised us that the Jews will gather in Palestine, and that the Muslims will fight them, and totally kill them. Even the stone and the tree will say: “Oh Muslims, there is a Jew behind me, come and kill him.” You might tell me that I am relying on supernatural hadiths. I believe this is not supernatural but is the core of our belief.

To repeat: it is the core of their belief. And this is why the Palestinians have never genuinely agreed to any kind of peace deal. Even if they did, it would only be to further their ultimate goals, as they showed by turning Gaza (once hoped by the world to become a new “Dubai” or “Singapore”) into one giant rocket launcher.

Arafat and Pharaoh

Few can deny the miraculous nature of Israel’s rebirth and stunning success. (David Ben-Gurion probably said it best when he pointed out that “In Israel, in order to be a realist you must believe in miracles.) The funny thing here is that the Arabs, too, have seen the miracles God has done for Israel. In 1948 everyone was convinced that Israel didn’t stand a chance against the invading Arab armies. Miraculously, Israel not only survived, but completely ousted all of its enemies. The same happened in the run-up to the Six-Day War. Just weeks earlier, on May 27, 1967, Egyptian President Nasser talked about his plans for the upcoming war and declared: “Our basic objective will be the destruction of Israel.” Three days later, the confident Nasser said:

The armies of Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon are poised on the borders of Israel… standing behind us are the armies of Iraq, Algeria, Kuwait, Sudan and the whole Arab nation. This act will astound the world. Today they will know that the Arabs are arranged for battle, the critical hour has arrived…

Two weeks later, Nasser was dealt a horrific defeat, in record time. The Arabs took a page out of Israel’s notebook and launched their own pre-emptive strike in 1973, on Yom Kippur no less, and were again soundly defeated.

My neighbour’s father happened to serve in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, in the Sinai Peninsula. He told me how his division was being shelled from the Egyptian side one night. Everyone watched in awe as the projectiles flying towards them were getting deflected out of the sky to the left and right, inexplicably dropping like flies on either side of the camp. As an Iraqi Jew, speaking Arabic fluently, he was posted to guard the Egyptian prisoners of war—and to listen in on their conversations for any valuable intelligence. He relayed to me how the Egyptians themselves were stunned and spoke of nothing but the God of the Jews miraculously protecting His people.

Our enemies have seen the miracles, yet they remain obstinate, just like Pharaoh and the ancient Egyptians. The face of that resistance, more than any other, is Yasser Arafat, who has become even larger in his death than in his life. Arafat is that deceptive weasel who convinced the world he was working for peace—even winning himself a Nobel Peace Prize—while working behind closed doors to terrorize innocent people and undermine the peace process every step of the way. Arafat is a modern-day “pharaoh”. The root of his name, Arafat (ערפאת), is oref (ערפ), literally the “back of the neck”, a symbol of stubbornness. It just so happens that our Sages long ago described Pharaoh (פרעה) as having the same stiff-necked root.

At first glance, one might think that this connection is trivial. But let’s not forget that Arafat himself was an Egyptian! He was born, raised, and educated in Egypt. His father was born in Gaza City, but, ironically, fought the Egyptian courts for 25 years to essentially prove that he was Egyptian, in order to secure Egyptian land that he felt he should have inherited! Of course, in some publications Arafat’s early life has since been rewritten for political purposes, as if he was really born in Jerusalem, where supposedly both his parents lived happily, and only went to Cairo for business. In reality, there is nothing “Palestinian” about Arafat! To be fair, there is little that’s “Palestinian” about most Palestinian Arabs, as admitted by Fathi Hammad, Gaza’s Minister of the Interior, in a recent TV interview:

Brothers, half of the Palestinians are Egyptians and the other half are Saudis. Who are the Palestinians? Egyptian! They may be from Alexandria, from Cairo, from Dumietta, from the North, from Aswan, from Upper Egypt. We are Egyptians. We are Arabs.

So, too, was Arafat: an Egyptian, an Arab. Not surprisingly, when he went to Israel to fight the establishment of the new State, he did not join the local “Palestinian” fedayeen, but was an agent of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. During that time, he adopted the Arab keffiyeh as his favourite headdress, with his own spin on the traditional design: Arafat wore the keffiyeh draped over his shoulder to form a triangle. This was supposed to represent the triangular shape of Israel that he was trying to “liberate”. At the same time, he coincidentally made it half-resemble the traditional headdress of the ancient pharaohs!

 

I do not wish to insinuate that Arafat was a pharaoh—he could only dream about having such power and authority. Nor is there any biological or cultural connection between the ancient Egyptians and the current dwellers of Egypt, who are Muslim Arabs. Rather, Arafat and the Pharaoh of this week’s parasha have that same wicked, obstinate spirit. They are rebellious by their very nature, hard of heart, and stubborn to the tremendous detriment of their own supporters (while themselves selfishly living in opulence).

Truly, most of the Arab-Muslim leaders historically have been cut from that same mold. They have refused to see the miraculous nature of Israel, and the great benefit that could be reaped from becoming friendlier. (Thankfully, that has changed somewhat of late, with more positive attitudes coming out of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States—hopefully a sign of things to come).

Worst of all, the Arab leaders have refused to heed the call of their own holy book, for the Koran (5:21) states: “[Moses said], ‘O my people! Enter the Holy Land which God has written for you, and do not turn tail, otherwise you will be losers.’” As well as (17:104): “And thereafter, We said to the Children of Israel: ‘Dwell in the land. When the promise of the Everlasting Life comes, We shall bring you all together.’” Based on such verses, Imam Abdul Hadi Palazzi, head of the Italian Muslim Assembly, has said:

…the Qur’an specifies that the Land of Israel is the homeland of the Jewish people, that God Himself gave that Land to them as heritage and ordered them to live therein. It also announces that—before the end of the time—the Jewish people will come from many different countries to retake possession of that heritage of theirs. Whoever denies this actually denies the Qur’an itself. If he is not a scholar, and in good faith believes what other people say about this issue, he is an ignorant Muslim. If, on the contrary, he is informed about what the Qur’an and openly opposes it, he ceases to be a Muslim.

Imam Palazzi is not alone. Egypt’s Dr. Tawfik Hamid, in his 2004 article Why I Love Israel Based on the Quran, concluded “No Muslim has the right to interfere with the gathering of the Jews in Israel, as this is the will of God himself”. That same year, Abdurrahman Wahid, then president of Indonesia (the world’s most populous Muslim country) said in an interview that “…there is a wrong perception that Islam is in disagreement with Israel. This is caused by Arab propaganda…” Jordan’s Sheikh Ahmad al-Adwan wrote: “Indeed, I recognize their sovereignty over their land. I believe in the Holy Koran, and this fact is stated many times in the book.” Unfortunately, these brave voices are drowned out by the ignorant, human-shield-supporting cowards.

At the end of the day, it is important to remember Who is pulling all the strings behind the scenes. Just as it was in Egypt millennia ago, God is orchestrating everything, setting the stage for the Final Redemption, which promises to be even more miraculous than the first, as Jeremiah (16:14-15) declared long ago:

Therefore, behold, days are coming, says the Lord, that it shall no more be said: “As the Lord lives, that brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt,” but rather: “As the Lord lives, that brought the children of Israel from the land of the north, and from all the countries where He had driven them”; and I will bring them back into their land that I gave unto their fathers…

A time will come when the Exodus from Egypt will be overshadowed by the far greater Redemption at the End of Days. While we have started to see some miracles already, the best is yet to come.

Hold on to your seats.

Tu b’Shevat: The Prime Ministers of Israel and the Coming of Mashiach

This Shabbat we celebrate the little-known though highly significant holiday of Tu b’Shevat. This special day is commonly referred to as Rosh Hashanah l’Ilanot, “the New Year for Trees”. The Talmud (Rosh Hashanah 2a) tells us that there are four “new years” on the Hebrew Calendar:

The first of Nisan is the New Year for kings and festivals; the first of Elul is the New Year for tithing of cattle… The first of Tishrei is the New Year for years, for sabbaticals, Jubilees, plantation, and tithing of vegetables; on the first of Shevat is the New Year for trees according to Beit Shammai, however, Beit Hillel places it on the fifteenth of that month.

The general rule is that we always follow Hillel’s opinion over Shammai’s, and so the New Year for Trees is commemorated on the 15th of Shevat. The Talmud doesn’t explain why Hillel and Shammai disagreed about the date. Perhaps because of this confusion, we are told that Rabbi Akiva would tithe his fruits on both the first and fifteenth of Shevat.

Nonetheless, by the 16th century, Tu b’Shevat had developed into an important mystical holiday, and the Arizal (Rabbi Itzchak Luria) introduced a Tu b’Shevat seder that mirrors the Passover seder. In addition to eating a variety of different fruits that are kabbalistically symbolic, the Tu b’Shevat seder includes drinking four cups of wine like on Passover. The connection is made very clear: Passover celebrates our First Redemption, and Tu b’Shevat celebrates our future redemption with the coming of Mashiach.

Indeed, Mashiach is often likened to a tree or sprouting plant. For example, Zechariah 6:2 tells us that Mashiach’s name is Tzemach, literally “plant”, while Psalms 92:13, in describing the End of Days, says “the righteous one will flourish like a palm tree.” Jewish tradition holds that a potential messiah lives in each generation, so that he may come immediately if the world is ready. Moses was the first redeemer, so his successor Joshua was the first possible mashiach.

Joshua was the first of the so-called “Judges”, the Shoftim that led Israel over the period of nearly five centuries before Israel had a king. It wasn’t just Joshua who was a potential messiah, but each and every one of the Judges. Each was a saviour in their generation, fighting off Israel’s enemies and bringing peace to the Holy Land. Each had the opportunity to reclaim Jerusalem and build the Holy Temple upon it, but failed. We read in Joshua 13:1 how God reprimands Joshua for growing old without completing his task, while the commentaries on Genesis 49:18 tell us how downtrodden Jacob was to prophetically foresee Samson fail to bring about the redemption.

The period of Judges would come to an end, and soon David would ascend the throne. It was he who acquired the Temple Mount in Jerusalem and brought the Ark of the Covenant there. David besought God to allow him to build the Temple, but God denied the request. However, he promised David that his dynasty would be everlasting, and that he would be the progenitor of the Messiah, who would complete David’s divine task.

It took a long and difficult, lawless period of Judges (where each person falsely did “what was right in their own eyes”, as we are told in Judges 17:6 and 21:25), full of warfare and oppression before the first footsteps of the Final Redemption were laid. This strongly resembles our present situation. “There is nothing new under the sun,” said King Solomon, and it appears we are reliving the past in our modern day.

Israel’s Prime Ministers

In 1948, a fully independent Jewish state in the Holy Land was finally re-established, under miraculous circumstances. Jews were returning en masse to their ancestral home, on a scale unseen since the time of Joshua. There was a chance to reclaim all of the ancient borders and even (though it would be astronomically difficult) rebuild the Temple. An even better opportunity presented itself in 1967, after the phenomenal Six-Day War. Yet time and again Israel failed to fulfil its Biblical mission. Alas, we must wait for Mashiach, the scion of David’s dynasty, to get the job done. The feeling among many Jews today is probably similar to that of the Jews in the period of Judges. And the similarities don’t end there.

The Israelite leaders in the period of Judges did some great things, but ultimately failed to realize their main task. A careful reading of the Book of Judges reveals that not all of the Judges were divinely appointed, and some weren’t even righteous! For the most part, the Judges were military leaders selected by the people. The Judge Avimelech was a powerful warrior, but such a wicked man that he was severely punished by God. Nonetheless, he is counted among the Judges because he was elected by the people. Sound familiar?

The situation in Israel today is much the same, with the people electing their leader – the prime minister – who is often a military hero and sometimes not so righteous. The parallels between the ancient Judges and the modern prime ministers of Israel are striking:

The fifth Judge was Deborah, the only female; the fifth prime minister was Golda Meir, also the only female. Prior to Deborah was Shamgar, who had such a brief stint that he is not included in the chronological record. Likewise, before Golda Meir was Yigal Allon, who served for just 19 days and is often excluded from the list of official prime ministers. Unfortunately, we don’t know very much about the Judges to make more detailed comparisons. Many are described in only one or two verses, and some just by name. (Did Prime Minister Ehud Barak appreciate the significance of his name, considering both Ehud and Barak were two central figures in the Book of Judges?)

What we do know is that there were a total of fifteen Judges, who reigned from the time the Jews returned to Israel after their calamity in Egypt. Three thousand years later, the Jews once again return to Israel after the Holocaust, and thus far there have been thirteen prime ministers. The era of Judges concluded with the start of the monarchy and the subsequent construction of the Temple. It took fifteen judges to get there. Will it take fifteen prime ministers to do it again?

The Secret of Tu b’Shevat

Although the School of Shammai taught that the “New Year for Trees” is the first of Shevat, the School of Hillel insisted that it was on the fifteenth. This is where the holiday gets its name: Tu b’Shevat literally means “fifteenth of Shevat”, where Tu is the traditional Hebrew designation for the number fifteen. (In Hebrew, Tu [ט”ו] is composed of the letters ט and ו, where the former has a value of 9 and the latter 6, totalling 15. It might seem more logical to use the letters yud [10] and hei [5] to represent 15, but that would inadvertently spell a name of God in vain!)

Perhaps the School of Hillel insisted on the fifteenth to remind us of the deeper meaning of the holiday: the Final Redemption that it symbolizes, the foundation of which was laid by the first fifteen Judges and which, perhaps, will be fulfilled by another set of fifteen modern “judges”.

The Kabbalists teach that the letters beit and pei are linked, and are sometimes interchangeable. In fact, within the shape of the letter pei is a hidden beit. With this in mind, the word Shevat (שבט) can be read Shofet (שפט), “Judge”. Thus, Tu b’Shevat may very well hint to the fifteen Judges.

When it comes to the modern-day “judges”, the Prime Minster of Israel is officially the leading member of the Knesset, Israel’s parliament. And it is the Knesset that gives the necessary “vote of confidence” to elect a prime minister. Incredibly, Israel’s very first Knesset convened on February 14, 1949, which just happened to be Tu b’Shevat!

Prophecies and Miracles

The Tu b’Shevat seder instituted by the Kabbalists cites the Talmud (Sanhedrin 98a) that “there is no greater sign of the Redemption than the fulfilment of the verse, ‘And you, mountains of Israel, you shall give forth your branches and you shall bear your fruit for my people Israel, for they shall soon come’ (Ezekiel 36:8).” The Sages state then when we see the land of Israel flourishing once more, and yielding great quantities of fruit, we should know that the Redemption is imminent. Indeed, the modern State of Israel has flourished, growing a whopping 95% of its own produce, and exporting over $1.3 billion in agricultural goods – despite having a land mass that is officially 50% desert!

Back in 1890, Rabbi Ze’ev Yavetz started a tradition by taking his students to plants trees on Tu b’Shevat. Soon after, the custom was adopted by the Jewish National Fund, which has since planted an astonishing 260 million trees in Israel, and played a central role in the nascent state’s success. Today, it is estimated that over a million Jews still participate yearly in JNF’s Tu b’Shevat tree-planting. As such, Tu b’Shevat has grown from an obscure, mystical holiday – a footnote on the Hebrew calendar – to an important holiday marked even by secular Jews, bringing the entire nation together, very much in the spirit of the coming Redemption.

‘The Mulberry Tree’ (1889) by Vincent Van Gogh