How do we know that Rosh Hashanah is really the new year for the world? And how do we know it is a judgement day if the Torah seemingly doesn’t say so? Find out in this class! Also discussed is the geographical location of the Garden of Eden, the identity of the Forbidden Fruit, the nature of Satan, and how the current generation is a return of the generation of the Exodus, as well as the connections between ancient Egypt and the modern world.
At the start of this week’s parasha, Yitro, Moses’ eponymous father-in-law (aka. Jethro) joins the Israelite camp in the Sinai. The Zohar (II, 69b) explains, as per tradition, that Jethro wished to convert to Judaism, along with his entire family. The Zohar then uses this as a segue into a much broader discussion:
Rabbi Itzchak and Rabbi Yose were sitting one day in Tiberias and delving into Torah study. Rabbi Shimon passed by and asked: “What are you studying?” They replied: “We are on that verse from which our master taught us…” [Rabbi Shimon] asked: “And which is it?” They said: “That which is written: ‘This is the book of the generations of man [ze sefer toldot adam], when God created man, He made him in the likeness of God…’” (Genesis 5:1)
This verse in the Torah is used to introduce the genealogy of Adam and Eve. The Zohar explains that God showed Adam all future generations of humans that would descend from him, including all the future great leaders and sages (Jethro being one of them). Now, Adam was only given a vision of these people, meaning he only saw their outward appearance. Yet, from their outward appearance alone he could deduce a great deal about their souls. This is the deeper meaning behind sefer toldot adam, ie. wisdom that can reveal a person’s inner qualities, referring “to the secrets of the physical features of human beings… their hair, forehead, eyes, face, lips, lines on the hands, and ears. Through these seven traits a person can be known.” (Zohar II, 70b) The Zohar here is clearly referring to the ancient practices of physiognomy and chiromancy: understanding a person—and perhaps even telling their future—through their facial features and palm-lines. Continue reading
This week we conclude the fourth book of the Torah (Bamidbar) with the double parasha of Matot and Massei. The latter lists the 42 stops that the Israelites made during the course of their forty year sojourn in the Wilderness. While we know that this forty year period was a “punishment” because the Israelites failed to enter and settle the Holy Land as commanded, there are deeper reasons as well. One of these is that the Israelites spent those four decades learning the Torah for the first time. In some ways, it was like their gestation period.
The Sages compared the 40 years in the Wilderness to the 40 weeks of pregnancy, and pointed out that the gematria of Bamidbar (במדבר) is 248, equal to rechem (רחם), “womb”. This number is not random, for the Sages enumerated precisely 248 parts of the body, which first develop in the womb. The number agrees with modern science, the human body having 206 bones and about 42 major organs (though the latter number is subject to some controversy, depending on how one defines “organ”). The 42 stops that the Israelites made in the Wilderness neatly parallel the 42 organs. The number 206, meanwhile, is the gematria of davar (דבר), literally “word” or “thing”, and is the root of Bamidbar, “In the Wilderness”. The Wilderness was where Israel first heard the Word of God, and where Israel was officially born as a people.
So, there was something of a “divine anatomy” to the time and place of the Israelite wandering. In a similar—and far more amazing—way, there is a “divine anatomy” to the human body.