What is the deeper meaning behind the five afflictions of Yom Kippur? How do they serve to purify the five aspects of the soul? Find out in the shiur below, where we also discuss whether the sons of Jacob actually sold their brother Joseph or not, the Ten Martyrs that are mourned on Yom Kippur, miracles of the Yom Kippur War, and the role of air and water in Creation.
The 5th of Iyar is Yom Ha’Atzmaut, Israel’s Independence Day. It was on this day in 1948 that David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel. Immediately, the armies of three neighbouring Arab states—Egypt, Jordan, and Syria—declared war and invaded. Iraq and Saudi Arabia sent in additional forces. Lebanon assisted them, too. Yemen, Pakistan, and Sudan sent even more fighters. On top of that, there were fighters of the Holy War Army, essentially a local Arab militia composed of over 1,300 troops, as well as the Arab Liberation Army, with over 6,000 troops from various Arab states. Despite being completely surrounded, outnumbered, and outgunned, the nascent State of Israel miraculously destroyed its enemies in just under ten months.
The miracles did not stop there. In 1967, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq amassed 550,000 troops to “drive Israel into the sea.” With less than half of those numbers, Israel launched a pre-emptive strike that decimated the Arab forces in six days. Jerusalem was reclaimed, allowing Jews to visit their most holy sites for the first time in centuries. The miracles continued through the Yom Kippur War of 1973, and even through the 1991 Gulf War (which Israel did not directly take part in), and continue to this day. Ben-Gurion’s famous words are fitting: “In Israel, in order to be a realist, you must believe in miracles.”
Despite the fact that Jews once more have an independent state that is strong and prosperous (for the first time since the Maccabees defeated the Greeks and established the Hasmonean kingdom over 2000 years ago) there have been some, particularly in the Ultra-Orthodox Jewish world, that have opposed the State. This opposition comes in various degrees, from those that simply don’t support the secular government; to those that refuse to participate in state programs, military or national service, and the like; to those that completely side with anti-Israel groups bent on annihilating the State. Although, of course, the State of Israel is far from perfect, and its secularization often takes reprehensible forms, opposing the State makes little sense, particularly in light of what Jewish holy texts tell us.
Meanwhile, the ultra-secular elements in Israel, who strive to expunge Judaism, make even less sense, considering that the only claim Jews have to the land is tied to the Torah—the fact that God gave us this land, and we are its indigenous people, inhabiting it since Biblical times. Without the Tanakh, what claim does a secular person have to live in Israel? Moreover, many secular Israelis are blinding themselves to the miracle that is Israel, failing to see God’s hand in every step of its history.
By properly exploring Israel’s miraculous existence, perhaps the gap between the secular and the religious may be bridged. The former can come to see the validity and truth of God and His Torah, while the latter can come to see the State of Israel as a fulfilment of Biblical prophecy.
A look through history makes it clear: if it were not for God’s incredible miracles, the State of Israel would have never gotten off its feet, nor would it have survived to this day. God promises us in the Torah that “five of you shall chase a hundred, and a hundred of you shall chase ten thousand; and your enemies shall fall before you by the sword.” (Leviticus 26:8) This is precisely what has happened in every single war that Israel has participated in. In 1948, Israel tragically suffered 6,000 casualties, while the Arabs suffered over 20,000. In 1967, Israel suffered as many as 983, but the Arabs over 24,000. In 1973, Israel was surprise-attacked on Yom Kippur, completely unprepared for battle, faced with an invasion that had over one million troops from literally all over the world, including nearly 4,000 from Cuba! In comparison, Israel had 400,000 at best, reservists included. The highest estimates place 2,800 Israeli casualties, compared to 20,000 for the attackers.
In one well-known incident from this war, 150 Syrian tanks went up against just 7 remaining Israeli tanks left with no ammo in the “Valley of Tears” of the Golan Heights. Just as Israeli commander Avigdor Ben-Gal prepared to send a message saying his forces could no longer hold on, the Syrians suddenly retreated in a panic. All in all, Israel lost around 60 tanks in the Valley of Tears; the Syrians lost over 500. To this day, military analysts are puzzled by the Syrian withdrawal. Many theories have been proposed, including that the Syrians thought it must be an ambush, or even that higher up in the government Israel had threatened Syria with a nuclear strike. One Syrian soldier would later reveal what may have been the real reason: they thought they had been swarmed by an army of angels!
It isn’t just in military victories that God has clearly blessed the State. In under 70 years, Israel has flourished and is among the most developed and prosperous countries in the world. Isaiah prophesized:
The wilderness and the parched land shall be glad; and the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose. It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice… they shall see the glory of Hashem, the excellency of our God. (Isaiah 35:1-2)
Indeed, Israel and its once-parched lands have blossomed abundantly. Israel is now self-sufficient in its food production (meaning no one will starve if Israel stops all imports of food) and exports over $1.3 billion in food every year.
Israel famously exports a great deal of innovation and technology, too, and is a global leader in science. Its high-tech sector, nicknamed “Silicon Wadi”, is second only to Silicon Valley. Despite its short existence, Israel ranks 12th in per capita Nobel Prizes—higher than Canada and the US, Germany, France, and the entire European Union for that matter. There are nearly 400 million Muslim Arabs across 22 countries, and altogether they account for just 7 Nobel Prizes (of which two were “peace” prizes for terrorist-sponsors Anwar Sadat and Yasser Arafat!) while some 6 million Jews in Israel alone have won 12 Nobel Prizes. There is no doubt that Israel, with God’s blessing, has lived up to the Biblical ideal of being a “light unto the nations.” (Isaiah 42:6)
History makes it clear that the establishment and survival of the State of Israel is nothing short of a divine miracle, and would not happen were it not for God’s support and supervision. Before Moses passed away, he sang his final song to the people, and told them: “Remember the days of old, understand the years of past generations.” (Deuteronomy 32:7) Consider the historical facts: does history not make it so plainly obvious? “How could one chase away a thousand… if not for Hashem who delivers them up?” (Deuteronomy 32:30) Is it logical that 7 tanks can scare off 150? That a million invaders can be subdued by mere thousands? That a nation so soon back from the brink can rebuild such a prosperous state in a barren desert so quickly? And that it was all prophesied long ago, as Ezekiel foresaw that “in the End of Years” the Jews people shall return to their land, coming back from “the sword, gathered from among many peoples, [returning] upon the mountains of Israel, which have been a continual waste…” (Ezekiel 38:8) Is it not obvious that God is pulling the strings?
Uniting in Righteousness
Finally, the Torah also tells us a well-known principle: the land of Israel is holy, and “vomits out” anyone who does not deserve to live there. In light of this, the great Moroccan sage Rabbi Avraham Azulai (c. 1570-1643) wrote in his Chessed L’Avraham (Ma’ayan 3, Nahar 12):
And you should know, every person who lives in the Land of Israel is considered a tzadik, including those who do not appear to be tzadikim. For if he was not righteous, the land would expel him, as it says “a land that vomits out its inhabitants.” (Leviticus 18:25) Since the land did not vomit him out, he is certainly righteous, even though he appears to be wicked.
Thus, as a general rule, all Israelis—secular and religious—are deemed righteous in their own way, and for any one side to label the other as “wicked” is incorrect. We mustn’t forget that the Holy Temple was destroyed because of sinat hinam, baseless hatred and incessant infighting. Instead of opposing one another, we should all strive to support one another, to understand each other, and make Israel—the one homeland that we all have—the best that it can be. Then we will be able to realize the prophecy of Isaiah:
I will set your stones in fair colours, and lay your foundations with sapphires. And I will make your pinnacles of rubies, and your gates of carbuncles, and all your border of precious stones. And all your children shall be disciples of God, and great shall be the peace of your children… (Isaiah 54:11-13)