In this week’s parasha, Pinchas, we read about the five daughters of Tzlafchad, named Machlah, Noa, Chaglah, Milkah, and Tirzah. After the partitioning of the Land of Israel, the daughters approached Moses with a complaint. Because their family only has girls, and no boys, the daughters worried about what would happen to their father’s land and inheritance. Moses took the case up to God, who answered that daughters are able to inherit just as sons are in such situations. This is one example in the Torah of what might today be described as “gender equality”. The Torah (and Judaism more broadly) is sometimes criticized for its apparent gender inequality. One of the most common points of contention today is that blessing in Birkot HaShachar where men thank God for “not making me a woman”. Traditionally, women recite the blessing that thanks God “for making me kirtzono”, loosely translated as “like His will” Where did these blessings come from and what do they really mean?
This week’s Torah reading is Tzav, detailing many of the priestly laws that applied to the Kohanim. It begins with God telling Moses to instruct Aaron (the first Kohen) and his children in the proper sacrificial rites, starting with the olah, a type of offering that is wholly consumed by the flames (as opposed to being roasted and eaten). Rashi comments that the term “tzav” – command – has the connotation of commanding not just Aaron, but all of his future descendants, and all generations of kohanim.
One of those descendants is Pinchas, the grandson of Aaron (through his son Elazar). For his heroic efforts, as described in Numbers 25, God blessed him with an eternal priesthood. Pinchas is mentioned as the Kohen Gadol (High Priest) in the book of Joshua (who was the first of the Biblical Judges). According to the Sages, he remained in this role until the times of Yiftach, one of the last Judges. This would mean he served as the High Priest for several hundred years! The Sages suggest that when God promised him an “eternal priesthood”, He literally meant it.
Due to the scandal that concluded the story of Yiftach (Judges 11-12), the commentaries state that Pinchas resigned as the High Priest. He then disappears from the narrative, only to reappear again a couple of centuries down the road. This time, he comes back as Eliyahu HaNavi, Elijah the prophet, as the Sages state: Pinchas ze Eliyahu, “Pinchas is Eliyahu”. The Arizal (Sha’ar HaGilgulim, 33, 2b) explains that Eliyahu was the reincarnation of Pinchas, while many others say it was literally one and the same person, since God’s blessing connoted everlasting life.
Eliyahu himself never passed away, further proving the point that Pinchas was meant to live forever. The Tanakh describes how Eliyahu was taken up to Heaven alive in a whirlwind of flames (II Kings 2:11). It is said that Eliyahu transformed into an angel, and thus lives on. This is why he appears (spiritually speaking) at certain times in the Jewish calendar and life cycle, including during a brit, and for the fifth cup during the Passover seder. Ultimately, it is prophesized that he will return in physical form once more at the End of Days to herald the coming of Mashiach, as it says: “Behold, I will send you Eliyahu the prophet before the coming of the Day of Hashem, the great and awesome” (Malachi 3:23).
The commentary of Abudraham (or Abu Dirham, Rabbi David ben Yosef of 14th century Spain) explains that this is why the Sabbath before Passover is called Shabbat HaGadol, “the Great Sabbath”. The verse in Malachi ends by saying “the great and awesome”, hagadol v’hanora. After all, this passage from Malachi is the Haftarah portion that we read at the synagogue on Shabbat HaGadol!
The basic purpose of Shabbat HaGadol is to get us into the “Pesach spirit” and prepare us for Passover. On this Sabbath, It is customary to review the Haggadah and the pertinent laws of the holiday. Similarly, the Haftarah portion is also designed to get us into the Passover mindset. The Haftarah ends by juxtaposing the first redemption under Moses with the coming redemption ushered in by Eliyahu:
“Remember the Law of Moses, My servant, whom I commanded at Horev [Mt. Sinai] for all Israel, statutes and ordinances. Behold, I will send you Eliyahu the prophet before the coming of the Day of Hashem…” (Malachi 3:23-24)
The Sages tell us that after the final redemption we will no longer need to recall the first redemption, which will pale in comparison. This is based on the verse in Jeremiah 23:7 which prophesizes that in the End of Days, people will no longer describe God as the One who took the children of Israel out of Egypt, but as the One who saved Israel from oppression all over the world, and restored them to their Promised Land.
This is one reason why during the Pesach seder, while commemorating the first redemption, we end by pouring a fifth cup for Eliyahu, who will come to usher in the final redemption. Is it then that Jews will no longer be misunderstood and oppressed, our exile will end, and we will all return to live in the Holy Land in peace, as we say at the conclusion of the seder: “Next year in Jerusalem”.