Tag Archives: Shabbat (Tractate)

Hidden Symbolism of the Mishkan and the 39 Melakhot of Shabbat

A Modern Replica of the Mishkan in Timna, Israel

This week we read a double parasha, Vayak’hel-Pekudei, which focuses on the construction of the Mishkan, the mobile Tabernacle that served as the Israelites’ Temple in the Wilderness (and for centuries afterwards). The parasha begins with the command to observe the Sabbath: “Six days work may be done, but on the seventh day you shall have sanctity, a day of complete rest to God…” (Exodus 35:2) Immediately following this command is the instruction for the Israelites to gather materials for the construction of the Mishkan and its vessels, for “every wise-hearted person among you shall come and make everything that God has commanded.” (Exodus 35:10)

This juxtaposition classically alludes to the fact that the types of actions and works forbidden on Shabbat are those specifically used in constructing and maintaining the Mishkan. The Mishnah (Shabbat 7:2) lists 39 such actions:

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Should Jews Celebrate Birthdays?

At the end of this week’s parasha, Vayeshev, we read that it was “Pharaoh’s birthday” (Genesis 40:20). This is the only place in the Torah that explicitly mentions a birthday, which leads to the question: are birthday celebrations kosher? Where did birthday parties come from, and what is so special about the day of birth anyway?

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Why Break a Glass at a Jewish Wedding?

‘Jewish Wedding’ by Jozef Israëls (1824-1911)

In this week’s parasha, Ki Tetze, we find the verse that is traditionally used as the source for the mitzvah of marriage (Deuteronomy 24:1). One of the most famous and salient features of the Jewish wedding ceremony is the breaking of the glass. Where did this custom come from, and what does it mean?

The first and most common answer is that it is meant to symbolize the destruction of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. As much as the wedding is an extremely joyous occasion, we must not forget that we are still in exile mode, and the world is far from where it needs to be. The verses recited by the groom before breaking the glass remind us of this: “If I forget you Jerusalem, let my right hand forget [its skill]. Let my tongue stick to the roof of my mouth if I remember you not; if I not set Jerusalem above my greatest joy.” (Psalms 137:5-6)

Exactly when this custom began is not clear. The earliest known reference to breaking a glass at a wedding does come from the Talmud (Berakhot 30b-31a), though for a different reason:

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