Tag Archives: Wine

What Was the Forbidden Fruit?

This week we begin a new cycle of Torah readings with Beresheet, undoubtedly the most mysterious parasha of the Torah. We read of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, and how they were forbidden from consuming the fruit of the Etz HaDa’at Tov v’Ra, “Tree of Knowledge of God and Evil”. What was this tree? What was its fruit? And why were Adam and Eve barred from eating of it?

In Western artwork, the Forbidden Fruit is usually depicted as an apple. This has no origin in Jewish thought, and instead comes from the interplay of the nearly identical Latin words mălum¸“evil” (as in the English “malevolent”), and mālum, “apple” (also the root of English “melon”). Having said that, Jewish texts do describe the Garden of Eden as having the smell of an apple orchard (see Rashi on Genesis 27:27). Maybe this is why the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil was associated with an apple tree—and why the Latin words for “evil” and “apple” are so similar!

In the Talmud, the Sages give three possibilities for the identity of the Forbidden Fruit (Sanhedrin 70a, Berakhot 40a). The first is that it was grapes. Apparently, Adam and Eve became drunk from wine, and this led to their sin. The Sages here admonish Noah for having planted a vineyard after the Flood (Genesis 9:20), for he should’ve known from Adam and Eve that this was a bad idea! The second opinion is that the Tree of Knowledge was a variety of wheat. This is based on the relatedness of the words chitah (חטה), “wheat”, and chet (חטא), “sin”. The third opinion is that it was a fig tree, since we read how Adam and Eve covered themselves up with fig leaves right after consuming the fruit (Genesis 3:7). Rabbi Nehemiah holds that, in poetic fashion, just as they sinned with the fig, they were covered up with the fig.

Of course, all three of these possibilities are problematic. Neither grape nor wheat is a “tree” in the traditional sense. And it is hard to imagine that the common fig would have once been the Forbidden Fruit. Conversely, the fig is generally portrayed in very positive terms in the Tanakh (see, for example, Deuteronomy 8:7 and Micah 4:4).

The simplest explanation is that the Tree of Knowledge was a completely unique tree, unlike any other in the world. Perhaps the Sages were trying to describe some of the qualities of the Fruit, and that it had elements of wheat, grape, and fig. Wheat can be turned into flour and made into bread, whose ability to rise is seen as a metaphor for an inflated ego (hence the deeper reason of removing chametz during Pesach). Grape can be turned into wine, the most common way for people to go under the influence and be drawn to sin. Figs are often associated with sexuality in mythology. Maybe the Forbidden Fruit symbolized pride, debauchery, lust—wheat, grape, fig. Interestingly, the initials of these three species in Hebrew can spell da’at (דעת), the Tree of “Knowledge”: Another name for wheat, or grain, in the Tanakh is dagan (דגן); grapes are ‘anavim (ענבים); and fig is te’enah (תאנה).

Blessing Bread and Returning to Eden

The Midrash expands on the Talmudic passage above (Beresheet Rabbah 15:7). It gives a further reason for why the Forbidden Fruit might be wheat. On the surface, the Midrash brings an old figure of speech that a person who lacks knowledge would be described as having never eaten bread. The deeper implication of this Midrash is that, unlike everything else, bread is a quintessentially human food. Animals also eat fruits, vegetables, meat, and milk, but only humans eat bread. Processing hard wheat into edible bread requires divine knowledge. This is symbolic of the divine knowledge found within the Tree of Knowledge.

Bread represents something very powerful: man’s ability to manipulate his environment for his own benefit. Animals do not have this ability; they are victims of whatever nature throws at them. Man alone is able to change nature. This could be as simple as baking bread, or as complex as seeding the clouds to make rain and manipulate the weather. The Tree of Knowledge represents this divine ability, and maybe this is why the Torah says that once man consumes of it, they will be like gods (Genesis 3:22).

Intriguingly, the Midrash goes on to a discussion of the hamotzi blessing recited on bread. Reading between the lines, the Midrash reveals that reciting hamotzi might very well be, from a Kabbalistic perspective, fulfilling a cosmic tikkun for the sin of Eden. God cursed the land following Adam and Eve’s sin, and when we recite birkat hamazon after eating a meal, we bless the good land that God gave us. This serves to “sweeten” (or reverse, or temper) that curse of Eden.

The Etrog as Forbidden Fruit

The same Midrash above also speaks at length about the possibility that the Fruit was a grape or fig. It adds that it could have been a fruit called berat sheva or a different variety called berat ali, the identities of which are no longer clear. Some comment that these are types of figs. Interestingly, Rabbi Abba of Acco says the Fruit was an etrog, the special citron we use on the holiday of Sukkot. He proves it by pointing out how the Torah states Eve saw the Tree of Knowledge was “good for food” (Genesis 3:6), as if the tree itself, and not just its fruit, was edible. Rabbi Abba says that, apparently, no wood is edible except for that of the etrog tree, so the Tree of Knowledge must have been an etrog!

The mitzvah of taking an etrog comes from the Torah’s statement that we should take a pri etz hadar, the fruit of a “precious”, “unique”, or “enduring” tree (Leviticus 23:40). For the Sages, only the etrog fit that description. The same description works for the Tree of Knowledge—certainly a one-of-a-kind and “enduring” species. We can take another mystical plunge into the Midrash and extract that the mitzvah of acquiring an etrog and performing netilat lulav on Sukkot is a spiritual rectification, or tikkun, for the primordial sin of Eden. It has been pointed out that we shake the lulav and etrog a total of 18 times (three times in each of the six directions), with 18 being the gematria of chai (חי), “life”. When Adam and Eve consumed the Forbidden Fruit, they brought death into the world. In turn, we take the etrog and bring life into the world. Fittingly, at no point in the holiday do we actually consume the etrog!

A Tree of Unification

The Midrash cited above concludes by saying all of the opinions are inaccurate, and that the Tree of Knowledge was, of course, its very own species. God “did not, and will not, reveal to man” the identity of this tree. Others hold that it wasn’t a tree at all, and the whole narrative is an allegory. The Tree of Knowledge is symbolic for something else.

The most popular explanation is that the Tree is symbolic of sexual union. The Arizal explains that da’at means sexual intimacy, which is why the Torah describes the union of husband and wife as “knowledge” (as in Genesis 4:1, 4:17, or 4:25). He states that sexual arousal begins in the mind, as does the process of generating seed, hence the relationship to “knowledge” (see Sha’ar HaPesukim on Beresheet). Indeed, today we know from a scientific perspective that the hormones governing the reproductive system and the production of sex cells emerge from the hypothalamus and pituitary in the brain.

From this perspective, Adam and Eve’s “fruitful” encounter is a metaphor for sexual intimacy. This seems to be the plain meaning of the text, which says how Adam and Eve recognized that they were naked, and goes on to state how they produced children. In his Creation Legends of the Ancient Near East (pg. 134), S.G.F Brandon (1907-1971) suggests that this is precisely why the central “punishment” of consuming the Forbidden Fruit was bringing death into the world. Until then, Adam and Eve were alone on a finite planet. Once they learned to procreate, Earth would get more and more populated until there would be no resources left. Death is, therefore, the most natural and fitting consequence. People must die to make way for new people, or else the world would quickly be at its limits. At the same time, when God says consuming the Fruit would make man godly, it means that it would give man the divine ability to create more humans!

Why Must Evil Exist?

If we read the Torah literally, what does it mean that Fruit was of a Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil? The simplest explanation is that Adam and Eve did not originally have a concept of good or bad. While Eden was entirely good, and full of every possible delight and pleasure, Adam and Eve had no way of appreciating it, for they had never known any suffering. All of us today appreciate pleasure because we have experienced pain. For Adam and Eve, the Garden of Eden was just bland.

In a strange kind of way, the world needs evil to exist, at least for a temporary period of time. God wanted a world that was entirely good and pleasurable, but paradoxically, such a world first needs to go through a period of evil and pain. Only afterwards can we truly appreciate the good, and fully revel in the delights of Eden. This is why God tells us that “I form light and create darkness, make peace and create evil, I am Hashem, who makes all these things.” (Isaiah 45:7) We therefore find ourselves in this temporary phase of (unfortunately) very great aches and challenges. In the grand scheme of things, these millennia are just a blip in the cosmic passage of time. Soon enough, this difficult—though necessary—phase will be over, and we shall return to a true Garden of Eden.

Future Utopia (Credit: Kitbash3d.com)

 

Shabbat, Technology, and Our Cosmic Purpose

This week’s Torah reading is Vayak’hel, which is mostly a repetition of earlier passages regarding the construction of the Tabernacle. It begins by restating the command of keeping the Sabbath: “Six days shall you work, and the seventh day shall be for you a holy day of complete rest for Hashem…” (Exodus 35:2). The mitzvah of Shabbat is among the most commonly mentioned in the Torah. It is also among the most severe, with those who desecrate the Sabbath being “cut off” from among their people, and ultimately succumbing to death.

Although the Torah suggests a death penalty for those who desecrate the Sabbath, an accepted tradition is that no one was ever actually put to death for doing so, except the one case mentioned later in the Torah (though even that case is more complicated than it appears). Certainly, in the post-Biblical period no one was given the death penalty for Sabbath desecration. In most cases, the punishment of death is seen as more of a spiritual death, not a physical one.

In any case, Shabbat is unarguably of tremendous importance. It is so central to Judaism that when Jews inquire whether other Jews are religious, they often simply ask if they are “shomer Shabbos”. And, of course, the Torah itself begins with the creation narrative that lays down the blueprint for Shabbat, right from the very beginning. Before there is any mention of Israel or Hebrews, laws, commandments, Patriarchs, or prayers, there is a description of the Sabbath. What makes it so special?

The Simple Answer

In simple terms, everyone understands the inherent beauty of Shabbat. After all, the majority of people only get through their work week because of the promise of a weekend. Everyone needs a break; a time to recharge their batteries and relax. Shabbat takes the concept even further, offering a true day of rest by disconnecting from the wired world: no cellphones or computers, no bad news or annoying messages, no politics, no advertising, no finances, no celebrity gossip. An opportunity to restore some mental sanity and emotional peace, to actually spend time with family (instead of spending time with the television), and not have to worry about running errands, doing chores, or having to be somewhere. Scientific studies show that having a Sabbath-like day of rest (without work and worry, and with prayer and family involved) was one of the key factors in living a longer and happier life (see here).

Having said that, Shabbat is far more than just a day of rest. The Torah commands us not only to observe the Sabbath (shamor) but also to remember, or commemorate, it (zachor). What exactly are we supposed to be remembering?

Our Cosmic Purpose

When we recite Kiddush on Friday evenings, we say zecher l’maase beresheet, “a remembrance of the Work of Creation.” Shabbat is supposed to remind us of God’s creation of this universe. To remember His creation is really to remember why it was that He created it. Although the Torah does not explicitly say so, the purpose of creation is clear. God created the universe and then placed man, the pinnacle of creation, within it, in a Garden of Eden, to enjoy the delights of this amazing world. And God made man in His own image: a creative, intelligent being. He gave man the potential to further improve an already incredible place, and bring about even more pleasure, beauty, and comfort. Man’s role was to complete the creation started by God. This is what the Torah tells us, and what we read every Friday evening:

“And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, for in it He rested from all of His work, which God had created to complete.” (Genesis 2:3)

Though often translated otherwise, this well-known verse ends with the words asher bara Elohim la’asot, literally “which God had created to complete.” God created it for us to complete it. This is why man is often described as “God’s partner in Creation”. And sure enough, this is what mankind has been doing since the earliest days. We have taken the raw material that this universe provides us and improved upon it. It is incredible to think that you are reading this right now on some sort of digital device that runs on a silicon chip – essentially made from melted and crystallized sand. Your device also has copper and gold, among other elements, taken out of the earth, purified and transformed into a wire that can carry information. You might be wearing clothes made of linen, cotton, or silk – extracted from plants or animals – or taking life-saving medications derived from trees or bacteria. God gave us the raw materials, together with a divine intellect to transform them into wonderful technologies that make our lives so much better.

Returning to Eden

All of this technology is slowly bringing us back to a perfect world, as God originally intended. What the Sages of past centuries described as miracles that will happen in the future Messianic world, we take for granted as everyday normalities. There are references to these technologies across Jewish texts.

Grape-Harvesting Machine (Credit: Wineanorack.com)

Grape-Harvesting Machine (Credit: Wineanorack.com)

In one place, the Talmud (Ketubot 111b) describes the wheat in Messianic times as having grains the size of kidneys! This must have sounded far-fetched in those times, but today is quite possible with tools like genetic engineering. The same page of Talmud describes thirty kegs of perfect wine being produced effortlessly, without a person needing to tread upon the grapes, and without even needing to harvest them with back-breaking labour, as was normal in those days. Indeed, today’s wineries use machines to harvest the grapes, with an automated production process that has sensors to ensure the ideal levels of sugar, alcohol, and so on, resulting in the same perfectly-tasting wine year after year.

Jewish texts describe Messianic events being witnessed by the whole world, and Mashiach himself being recognized universally, leading the entire globe. This was hard to imagine before the era of modern communication, yet satellites, television, and the internet make it very simple for Mashiach to be recognized and heard internationally. These technologies also bridge together cultures, spread truth and understanding, and ultimately serve to break down barriers. It is no longer so difficult to envision a united, peaceful world working together.

Partners in Torah

In the same way that we are God’s partners in creation, fulfilling the physical realm, we are also His partners in the spiritual realm. Like the raw material of the Earth, God gave us the Torah in raw form. It was the Sages that then interpreted, explained, modified, enhanced, and continue to reinterpret the Torah, generation after generation, further improving God’s Word. What began as Moses’ five books turned into a Tanakh of 24 books, then a Mishnah of 63 tractates, followed by an even longer exposition on each tractate in the form of Talmud, and then even more texts of Midrash, Kabbalah, Halacha, Mussar, and so on.

Where once divine service consisted primarily of offering sacrifices, we have evolved to “pay the cows with our lips” (Hosea 14:3), and instead serve God in prayer. Indeed, the Rambam writes (Moreh Nevuchim III:32) that God only permitted sacrifices temporarily in order to slowly wean people away from such bloody practices; prayer was always the ideal form of communing with God, and what He intended all along.

In the same way that we are fulfilling God’s will, and our purpose, by perfecting the physical world, we are fulfilling God’s will, and our purpose, by perfecting ourselves in the spiritual world.

The Psychology of Shabbat

Shabbat is meant to remind us of our purpose in God’s creation. We should never lose sight of why we are really here: to be His partners in completing the world, both physically and spiritually, and returning it to its intended state of Eden.

This is yet another reason why Shabbat is so important, and inscribed among the Ten Commandments, those ten that are most central of God’s many other commands. A person who does not observe the Sabbath is not only missing out on a day of proper rest and relaxation, but also forgetting their true purpose. And without purpose, life loses its meaning. This was the conclusion of the great neurologist and psychologist Viktor Frankl, who found that the real source of depression, anxiety, and mental pains is not the many troubles of life, but simply a lack of purpose:

“What man actually needs is not a tensionless state, but rather the striving and struggling for some goal worthy of him. What he needs is not the discharge of tension at any cost, but the call of a potential meaning waiting to be fulfilled by him.”

Smith explains purpose in ‘The Matrix Reloaded’

Beyond being a day of rest, Shabbat is a tool that gives our lives a grand sense of purpose. God commands us to work diligently towards the fulfilment of this purpose for six days. But on the seventh, we should take a break, and simply enjoy the fruits of that labour. The Talmud (Berachot 57b) reminds us that the pleasure of Shabbat is one-sixtieth of the pleasure of the World to Come. We should spend Shabbat as if we have already completed our mission. And then, after recharging, and reminding ourselves why we are really here, we should go into a new work week, refreshed, to continue our special task as God’s partners in His universe.

Shabbat Shalom