Tag Archives: Raziel

The First Pesach: Did the Patriarchs Celebrate Passover?

The holiday of Passover commemorates the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt over three thousand years ago. The Torah tells us that because of their hasty departure, the dough of the Israelites did not have time to rise, hence the consumption of matzah. Yet, the term matzah appears in the Torah long before the Exodus! We read in Genesis 19:3 that Lot welcomed the angels into his home and “made them a feast, and baked matzot, and they ate.” Since the angels came to Lot immediately after visiting Abraham and Sarah to announce the birth of Isaac at that time next year (Genesis 18:10), the Sages learn from this that Isaac was born on Passover. Of course, the Exodus only took place four hundred years after Isaac’s birth! How is it that the patriarchs are already eating matzah?

An Eternal Torah

Although the Torah was given to the Israelites following the Exodus, Jewish tradition affirms that the Torah is eternal, and even predates existence. A famous verse in the Zohar (II, 161a) states that “God looked into the Torah and created the universe.” Adam knew the whole Torah, and was taught its deepest secrets by the angel Raziel. Many of these teachings were passed on by Adam to future generations, down to Noah, then his son Shem, and eventually to the Patriarchs who, according to tradition, studied at Shem’s academy. So, while the Torah tradition officially dates back to Sinai, in some ways it dates back all the way to Creation! It’s also important to keep in mind that the Patriarchs were prophets, which means that even though they did not have a physical, written Torah, there is no reason why they could not have received the Torah’s wisdom directly from God.

As such, it is said that the Patriarchs kept the entire Torah and fulfilled all the mitzvot. When Jacob sends a message to Esau after his sojourn in Charan he tells him “I have lived [garti] with Laban” (Genesis 32:5). On this, Rashi says that garti (גרתי) is an anagram of taryag (תרי״ג), the 613 commandments, meaning that despite living under the oppressive Laban for twenty years, Jacob still observed all 613 commandments. Yet, this is impossible since Jacob married two sisters—a clear Torah prohibition! Similarly, when Abraham meets Melchizedek (ie. Shem) following his victory over the Mesopotamian kings, he tells him that he will not take any reward whatsoever, not even “a thread or strap” (Genesis 14:23). For this, the Sages say, Abraham’s descendants merited the mitzvah of tzitzit (the threads) and tefillin (the straps). In that case, Abraham himself did not wear tefillin or tzitzit. From such instances we see that the patriarchs did not keep the Torah completely, at least not the Torah as we know it.

Emanations of Torah

While Kabbalistic texts often point out that the Torah is eternal and served as the very blueprint of Creation, they also go into more detail to explain that this primordial Torah was not quite the same as the Torah we have today. Each of the four mystical universes (Asiyah, Yetzirah, Beriah, Atzilut) has an ever-more refined level of Torah, with the highest being the Torah of Atzilut. Our Torah is the one of Asiyah, and is full of mitzvot only due to Adam’s sin and the corruption of mankind. In Olam HaBa, the Torah of Atzilut will finally be revealed, which is why Jewish tradition holds that many mitzvot will no longer apply in that future time. This is said to be the meaning of Isaiah 51:4 where God proclaims that in the messianic times “a Torah will go forth from Me”; and of Jeremiah 31:30 where God says He will forge a brit chadashah, a “new covenant”, with Israel. (This latter term was usurped by Christians for their “New Testament”.)

An even more intriguing idea is that the “New Torah” will be composed of the exact same letters as the current one we possess, just rearranged to form new words! Yet another is based on the well-known principle that the Heavenly Torah is composed of “black fire on white fire”. This is often used to explain the fact that the Torah actually has 304,805 letters, even though it is always described as having 600,000 letters (one for each Israelite at Mt. Sinai)—there are 304,805 letters of “black fire” and the rest are the invisible letters of “white fire”. Gershom Scholem cites a number of Kabbalistic and Hasidic texts suggesting that these currently-invisible “white fire” letters are the true eternal Torah! (See Scholem’s Kabbalah, pgs. 171-174, for a complete analysis of these concepts.)

It is this primordial Torah that was originally taught to Adam, and was passed down through his descendants to the Patriarchs, who carefully observed it. As such, it appears that eating matzah is an eternal mitzvah that already appeared in the primordial Torah before the Exodus and the revelation of the current Torah of Asiyah. What was the meaning behind that consumption of matzah?

Bread of Faith

Matzah is called the “bread of faith”. It symbolizes our faithfulness to God, who took us out of Egypt to be His people: “Let My people go so that they may serve Me” (Exodus 7:16, 26). Further emphasizing this point, the word matzot is spelled exactly like mitzvot. This simple, “humble” bread symbolizes our subservience to God’s commands. We are His faithful servants, just as the Patriarchs were His faithful servants. So they, too, ate matzah as a sign of their faith. They ate matzah because God had liberated them, too, from various hardships.

The very first Patriarch, Abraham, was miraculously saved from Nimrod’s furnace. He also dwelled in Egypt for a time before God miraculously brought him out of there with great wealth, just as his descendants would do centuries later. And then came his greatest test of faith: the Akedah. Amazingly, the apocryphal Book of Jubilees connects this event with the future Passover holiday. In chapter 18, it suggests that God commanded the Akedah to Abraham on the 15th of Nisan. As the Torah states, Abraham journeyed for three days before the Akedah happened and then, naturally, it took him three days to return home. Thus, the whole ordeal spanned seven days, and when Abraham returned, he established a seven-day “festival to Hashem” from the 15th of Nisan. The future seven-day Passover holiday would happen on those same days in that same month.

“Abraham’s Sacrifice”, a 15th century piece of Timurid-Mongolian art

While the Sages do debate whether some of the Torah’s major events (including Creation itself) happened in the month of Tishrei or Nisan, the accepted Jewish tradition is that the Akedah happened in Tishrei. Nonetheless, it is quite fitting that the Binding of Isaac should happen on Passover, when Isaac was born. In this case, the ram that Abraham ultimately offered in place of Isaac would serve as a proto-Pesach offering. After all, the ram is nothing but a male sheep, and it is the ram that is the astrological sign of Nisan, and it was those ram-headed gods that the Egyptians worshipped that needed to be slaughtered by the Israelites (as discussed last week). Whatever the case, the Book of Jubilees offers an intriguing possibility for the spiritual origins of Passover, and for why the Patriarchs themselves ate matzot long before the Exodus.

The Names and Divisions of Angels

This week we commence the third book of the Torah, Vayikra (known in English as “Leviticus”). The Zohar begins its commentary on this section by reminding us that the ancient generations—even the lowest and most wicked among them—knew the secrets of the Hebrew alphabet and their permutations. Unfortunately, they sometimes used this knowledge to control angelic forces towards evil ends.

Mystical texts describe how angels are formed from God’s speech, and the different combinations of letters of their names give them their powers. The Arizal explains that this is the meaning of Psalms 33:6, “By the word of Hashem the Heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their legions.” He further explains that this is the meaning behind the perplexing words in Exodus 20:14, where the Israelites apparently “saw” God’s voice at Mt. Sinai (וכל העם ראים את הקולת). The Arizal tells us what they saw were the angels emanating from God’s voice.

Elsewhere, the Arizal writes that starting in the generation of Enosh (the grandson of Adam), people began manipulating the divine names of angels to suit their own selfish, unholy desires. This is the meaning of Genesis 4:26, “And to Seth was also born a son, and he named him Enosh. It was then that God’s Name began to be profaned.” Rashi famously comments here that in Enosh’s generation idolatry emerged. The Arizal explains that it began with the manipulation of God’s ministering angels through their names.

‘Turris Babel’ by Athanasius Kircher

In fact, this is how the Tower of Babel was built. Moreover, the aim of its power-hungry builders was to move beyond angels and learn how to manipulate God Himself! The Torah introduces the passage by saying the Tower generation were “one people with one language” (Genesis 11:1). The Ba’al HaTurim points out that the term “one language” (שפה אחת) has the same gematria as “holy tongue” (לשון הקדש), since the people were experts in the mystical wisdom of Hebrew, the language with which God created the universe, and through which God’s angels emanate. Not surprisingly, the punishment of the Tower builders was to have their language confounded. Their knowledge of Hebrew was taken away, replaced with countless new tongues and dialects.

The Meaning of Vayikra

The Zohar’s commentary on this week’s parasha continues by explaining the meaning of the word Vayikra. This word symbolizes God’s primary legion of angels, the one that descended upon the Tent of Meeting together with the Clouds of Glory that rested upon it (Exodus 40:35). The Zohar says the Cloud was actually meant to conceal these angels.

The commanding “general” of this legion is the angel Michael (מיכאל). Below him, his chief officer is called Tzadkiel (צדקיאל). Tzadkiel stands over three “colonels”, each with a “lieutenant” angel, surrounding by twelve ministering angels (three on each of the four sides). The names of the three pairs are Kdumiel (קדומיאל) and Ariel (אריאל), Yofiel (יופיאל) and Chakhamiel (חכמיאל), and Raziel (רזיאל) and Rumiel (רומיאל). The source of their angelic glow is the letter Vav, which emanates from the inner Holy of Holies. Guarding the Holy is Kdumiel’s division, shining with the letter Yud. Before him is Yofiel’s division, shining with the letter Kuf; then Raziel’s with the letter Reish, and finally Tzadkiel with the letter Aleph. This order of letters spells Vayikra (ויקרא).

The Zohar goes on to explain the divisions of the second camp of angels that parallel this first camp. While the first is under the command of Michael, the second is under the command of his counterpart Gabriel (גבריאל). His subordinates are Chizkiel (חזקיאל), and under him are Gazriel (גזריאל) with his twelve angels, then Rahatiel (רהטיאל) and Kadshiel (קדשיאל) with their twelve, Kaftziel (קפציאל) and Aza’el* (עזאל) with their twelve, as well as the twelve around Shmiel (שמעיאל) and Ragshiel (רגשיאל), who move between the camps of Michael and Gabriel.

Altogether, these camps are symbolized by the letters of vayikra. The parasha begins with the words Vayikra el Moshe, “And He called unto Moses”. The Zohar suggests that when God called out to him, Moses saw a vision of all these angels in their divisions. Moses was entrusted with the wisdom of their names and powers—information that had been kept secret since the Great Dispersion and confounding of languages that followed the Tower episode.

Commander-in-Chief

The root of vayikra means to “call out” or to “name”, as the angels are brought into existence through God “calling” them forth and naming them with their task. It is not a coincidence that the term vayikra appears in Genesis 4:26, cited above, where we are told the names of angels began to be manipulated.

In total, the term vayikra appears 90 times in the Torah. Meanwhile, the gematria of the word “angel” (מלאך) is 91. The Kabbalists teach that when the value of a word is one more than another, this progression of numbers suggests that the former emanates from the latter. Indeed, we see how angels (91) emanate from God’s call, vayikra (90).

Of course, God is the Commander-in-Chief of all His legions (“Hashem Tzevaot”). He is most commonly referred to as the King, and this is how the angels address Him. The value of “king” (מלך) is also 90. This should remind us that while we read of angelic generals, colonels, and lieutenants, we must never forget Who is really in charge.

*Multiple Jewish texts identify Aza’el with a fallen angel (see our previous post here). The Talmud, among other sources, says that Aza’el never repented and remained chained in this physical world, hence the ritual of sending a goat to “Azazel”. If that is the case, how could he be one of the important angels listed above?

A careful reading of the Zohar shows that the angel Gazriel stands alone without a partner. All the other angels are paired. (Michael-Tzadkiel, Kdumiel-Ariel, Yofiel-Chakhamiel, Raziel-Rumiel, Gabriel-Chizkiel, Rahatiel-Kadshiel, Shmiel-Ragshiel.) Kaftziel is paired with Aza’el. Perhaps Aza’el was initially placed within this legion, but after his fall, Gazriel took his place.

This actually results in a much more balanced symmetry to the camps, as follows:

Noah’s Ark and the Tower of Babel: Not What You Think

This week’s Torah reading is Noach, which begins with the well-known narrative of the Great Flood. We are first introduced to the righteous Noah, and his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Yefet (known in English as “Japheth”), who were living in a world that had become completely corrupted. God commands Noah to construct a sanctuary that could house his own family, along with a sample from the rest of nature. How Noah constructed the Ark, what it was like, and which materials it was made from are, for the most part, a mystery.

'Noah's Ark' by Edward Hicks (1846). According to Jewish tradition, Noah's Ark was nothing at all like this.

‘Noah’s Ark’ by Edward Hicks (1846). According to ancient Jewish texts, Noah’s Ark was nothing at all like this.

In the past, we’ve written of mystical teachings suggesting that Noah constructed the Ark using divine powers of speech. The Torah states that the Ark was made of atzei gofer, translated as “gopher-wood” – an unknown species which, even more perplexingly, is a term that appears nowhere else in any book of the Tanakh. The Talmud (Sanhedrin 108b) presents one opinion stating that it was more like golamish, a hard stone (see also Psalms 114:8).

The Torah also mentions that the Ark had a tzohar, again a totally unique word that appears nowhere else in Scripture. Various ancient Jewish texts describe the tzohar as a divine tool with all sorts of supernatural powers. The Midrash (Beresheet Rabbah 30:11) describes it as a lamp that illuminated the Ark. The fascinating description here presents the possibility that the Ark was far more than just a boat that fills the imaginations of most people. The Ark was an entire ecosystem, a biodome of sorts, with the tzohar serving as an artificial sky, appearing as the sun during the day, and as the moon during the night. Noah and all those aboard the Ark were in a world of their own. Moreover, the tzohar was an accurate astronomical map that could be used for navigating the skies, and indeed, was later used by Abraham for astrological purposes (Bava Batra 16b).

Further still, the word used by the Torah to describe the flood waters that descended from above is geshem. For the modern Hebrew speaker, there is nothing at all puzzling about this. After all, the common term for rain in Modern Hebrew is geshem. However, this is not so in the Torah. The word “geshem” appears just twice in the Five Books of Moses, both with regards to the flood. Nowhere else is rain called “geshem”, rather it is far more commonly known as mattar (which is the root for the Modern Hebrew word for ‘umbrella’, mitriyah). So what exactly was “geshem”? The Talmud (Sanhedrin 108b) says that the “waters” of the flood were actually some sort of thick, hot substance!

This same Talmudic passage also gives us some insight into the pre-Flood world. It is commonly assumed that since this took place thousands of years ago, the people were primitive and ignorant. The truth is quite different. The Talmud states that when Noah warned the people about their impending doom (in fact, he was given 120 years to do so), the people mocked him, not because they didn’t believe that something was coming, but because they thought they could overcome anything sent their way:

‘A flood of what?’ They jeered. ‘If a flood of fire, we have a substance called alitha. If a flood of water: if the water comes from the ground, we can prevent it from rising with iron plates, and if from above, we have a substance called akov (or akosh).’

The pre-Flood generations had knowledge that we can’t even imagine today. Despite the historical time period being before the official “Iron Age”, the people of the flood boasted of their superb iron technology. They had substances to prevent fires and floods. Much of this wisdom came their way through various angelic beings. Mystical literature speaks of an angel called Raziel, which taught Adam and Eve a collection of Heavenly secrets. These mysteries were passed down from generation to generation. Enoch received this wisdom, and it played a role in his bodily ascent to Heaven (Genesis 5:24). Meanwhile, the fallen angels Shamhazai and Azazel taught man both many evils and many otherworldly powers.

In fact, one of the reasons that God sent the flood is because of the misuse of Heavenly powers and the manipulation of angels by humans. After the deluge, the bulk of these mysteries were hidden. However, people eventually rediscovered them, and soon began to use these powers for the wrong purposes once more. This is described in the second major narrative of this week’s Torah reading, that of the Tower of Babel.

Here, the Torah begins by saying that all the people spoke a common language (Hebrew), and had a common purpose. They were united in their goal: to ascend to Heaven and take complete control of the universe (Sanhedrin 109a). Again, this narrative has been commonly taught as a story of ignorant people that foolishly built a very tall tower to the clouds, thinking that the clouds are the homes of angels. But they weren’t going to the clouds.

'Confusion of Tongues' by Gustav Dore

‘Confusion of Tongues’ by Gustav Doré

The Talmud (Sanhedrin 106) speaks of a migdal haporeach b’avir, “a tower flying through the air”. When they were ascending to the Heavens, they meant it. Commenting on the perplexing words of the Torah that states the people of the Tower wanted to nisrefa lisrefa, “burn in order to burn” (Genesis 11:3), Rabbi Yonatan Eybeschutz (1690-1764) suggests that the Tower had a flame coming out of one end!

These people were not foolish, and their threat was taken seriously. Thus, angels descended from Heaven to destroy their Tower, confound their language, and disperse the people across the world (Genesis 11:7). Why was this specifically the punishment for their crime? The Arizal (in Sefer HaLikutim) teaches that the Tower generation used the secrets of the Hebrew language to access spiritual powers and to manipulate angels. And so, knowledge of Hebrew was taken away from them; their languages were confused and they were scattered around the globe. No longer able to communicate with one another, and spread far apart, they would be unable to unite against the Heavens ever again. The secret supernatural powers of the past were concealed once and for all; the real history of the ancient world was forgotten. In one instant, a single people with a single past was turned into countless nations, each with their own language, culture, mythological origins, and historical narratives.

The beauty of it all, of course, is this: to suggest that the past was ever any different than what we think and know from history books is immediately ridiculed. No one could ever believe such a thing!

And that’s exactly how God and His angels wanted it.